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^00 3^95r: ^Tat 

^orbarb CoOege JMwcp 






Edited by H. de B. Gibb ins, M.A. 



Edited by H, de B. GIBBINS, M.A. 

Crown 8vo, 2s. 6d. 

A series of volumes upon these topics of social, economic, and 
industrial interest that are at the present moment foremost in the 
public mind. Each volume is written by an author who is an ac- 
knowledged authority upon the subject with which he or she deals, 
and who treats the question in a thoroughly sympathetic but impartial 
manner, with special reference to the historic aspect of the subject. 

The following Volumes of the Series are now ready, 

of Th€ Cot^flicU of Capital and Labour. Second Edition. 

3. PROBLEMS OP POVERTY: An Inquiry into the Industrial Condition 
of the Poor. J. A. Hobson, M.A. 


Author of The History of Co-^peraiiom, ' 

4. MUTUAL THRIPT. Rev. J. Fromb Wilkinson, M.A., Author of TAe 

Friendly Society Movement . 

5. THE COMMERCE OP NATIONS. C. £. Bastablb, LL.D., Professor 

of Political Economy in the University of Dublin. 

6. THE ALIEN INVASION. W. H. Wilkins, B.A., Secretary to the 

Association for Preventing the Immigration of Destitute Aliens. 
(With an Introductory Note by the Rigjit Reverend the Bishop of Bedford.) 

7. THE RURAL EXODUS: Problems of Village Life. P. Andbrson 



9. A SHORTER WORKINQ-DAY. R. A. Haofibld, and H. de B. 

GiaDiNS, M.A. 

10. BACK TO THE LAND. Harold E. Mookb, F.S.I. 

11. TRUSTS. POOLS. AND CORNERS. J. Stbphbn Jbans. 

13. FACTORY LEGISLATION. R. W. Cookb Taylor. Author of 
TheJiiodem Factory System^ etc. 

13. WOMEN'S WORK. Lady Dilke, Amy Bulley, and Margaret 


14. THE STATE AND ITS CHILDREN. Gertrude Tuckwbll. 

15. MUNICIPALITIES AT WORK. By Frederick Dolman. 

Other Volumes are in prtparation. 












Chairman of the London County Council 








Mr Frederick Dolman has rendered excellent service 
by bringing together, in this concise form, the various 
steps which indicate the growth of that municipal spirit 
which, happily, is spreading throughout the United 
Kingdom. Of all those who read this book it is pro- 
bably the Londoner who will most be stimulated by it, 
for here he will read that the policy which in London 
is always being met by the cry of non possutnus^ is, in 
many provincial towns, an accomplished fact. Cities 
with populations far less than that of a moiety of 
London have municipalised their markets, gas, water, 
tramways, electric light, and art galleries, and, so doing — 
in addition to reducing the cost to the community — have 
secured a municipal fund, without an increase in rates. 

Birmingham in seventeen years made a profit on its gas 


of ^714,000; the markets of Manchester hand over 
;^ 15,000 annually, to the City Treasury; while the markets 
of Liverpool make a profit of £t6,$oo; the surplus of 
nearly ;;£'7,ooo on the trams of Liverpool goes towards 
the relief of the paving rate; Glasgow in 1893 made a 
profit of ;^42,ooo on water, ^29,500 on gas, and ^^3,300 
on markets ; while Bradford made a profit on its electric 
light of over ;^2,ooo. 

These are a few only of the many facts which will 
appeal to the residents in the county of London and 
confirm them — unless they are shareholders in such 
undertakings — ^in their objection to a system which 
permits of private gain being made out of public neces- 
sity. The policy of the Cities mentioned makes manifest 
their identity and corporate character, and is not without 
its effect on the citizens. 

While the London reformer will be delighted with Mr 
Dolman's ounces of fact with which to stay the plentiful 
tons of inconsequent but delaying argument by which he 
is opposed, he cannot but feel somewhat humiliated that 
London should in so many important directions tarry far 
behind the chief centres of provincial life. To the man 
of faith, the facts here presented will act as a stimulus, 
because wtat man has done man can do ; to the man who 


only feels through his pocket, self-interest calls for a 

similar policy for London ; and to the man who believes in 

the brotherhood of man, the collectivist policy is the only 

one which makes for righteousness, because it is based 

upon justice. 


February 1895 


In the discussion of matters of social welfare reference 
is frequently made to the municipal policy of such great 
towns as Birmingham and Manchester, Liverpool and 
Glasgow, Leeds and Bradford. In the following pages I 
have endeavoured to show the exact value of such refer- 
ences by a brief and concise statement of these '' leading 
cases" in that municipal policy to which are turned the 
hopes of social reformers. It will be found that the cases 
differ materially from each other : a salient feature of the 
first has but little importance in the second, whilst the 
third has some distinctive and noteworthy characteristic 
of its own. The separate treatment accorded them has 
consequently its advantage in enabling the points of 
strength or weakness to be accentuated in each case. 

In respect to each Municipality, my information has 
been obtained chiefly by personal inquiry on the spot, 
supplemented by such as was to be derived from the 
printed reports, &c., which members and officials cour- 
teously placed at my disposal. At the same time, acknow- 
ledgment is made of assistance derived from several books 


— viz., Bunce's " History of the Birmingham Corporation," 
Picton's " Memorials of Liverpool," Cudworth's " Historical 
Notes on the Bradford Corporation," and Nicol's " Statistics 
of Glasgow." 

A part of the book has already appeared in the pages 
of the New Review^ the Editor of which I have to thank 
for consenting to its re-publication. 


February 1895. 



II. MANCHESTER ..... 23 

III. LIVERPOOL ...... 42 

IV. GLASGOW ...... 64 

V. BRADFORD ...... 85 

VL LEEDS ...... 105 

CONCLUSION. . . . . 121 


I. The Municipalities and Labour . . 131 

II. Comparative Statistics — 

{a) The Municipalities and Health . 139 

{b) The Municipalities and Education . 139 

(c) Profits on Municipal Undertakings . 140 
{d) Municipal Finance . . " 140 

INDEX ...... 141 




Early Difficulties of the Corporation — The Chamberlain Era — 
Municipalisation of the Gas and its Results— Electric Lighting 
and Private Enterprise — The Story of Birmingham's Water 
Supply — The Great Improvement Scheme — Its Effect on the 
Health of the City — Workmen's Cottages built by the Munici- 
pality on the old Slum Area — An Acre of Open Space for every 
1300 of the population— The Municipal Baths — Municipal 
Ownership of the Markets — The Improvement in Birmingham's 
Death-Rate — Municipal Zeal for Art, Science and Literature — 
The Citizens' Pride in their Libraries, Picture Galleries and 
Technical Schools — Twenty Years' Good Work at no cost to 
the Ratepayers — Inequality in the Rates — Admirable Manage- 
ment of the Municipal Finances. 

Municipal reformers look to Birmingham as the eyes of 
the faithful are turned to Mecca. In making an attempt 
to depict the municipal life and work of some of the big 
provincial cities, the Midland capital naturally claims 
attention first. Precedence does not, indeed, necessarily 
imply pre-eminence; in some respects Birmingham may 
possibly be found to have already lost the lead ; in some 
spheres of civic activity the pioneer's laurels may, perhaps, 
have fallen into other hands. But this cannot change the 
historic circumstance that Birmingham was the first to 
initiate, in a broad and comprehensive spirit, the new 



regime of municipal socialism on which our hopes of im- 
provement in the condition of large towns are now so 
greatly dependent ; that there, some twenty-five years ago, 
municipal statesmanship arose with the brain to conceive 
and the hand to execute enterprises which were really 
commensurate with the difficulties and the problems of a 
rapidly-growing city. 

The municipal histdry of Birmingham prior to what must 
be called the Chamberlain era is to some extent remark- 
able. It obtained its charter of incorporation in 1838, in 
spite of the stubborn opposition of the Conservative party 
in the town. This opposition was continued even after 
the grant of the charter. Its validity was contested on 
various technical grounds, and when the newly-elected 
Council ordered the levy of a rate, the overseers refused to 
carry out its behest. For two years the Council was with- 
out funds, with the exception of a sum of ;^20oo raised on 
the personal guarantee of some of its members, and what 
could be obtained as loans from the Government. Legal 
difficulties had been favoured by a want of lucidity in 
some of the clauses in the Municipal Corporations Act ; 
and in 1842 Sir Robert Peel, having regard to the position 
of affairs in Birmingham, Manchester, and Bolton, found 
it necessary to pass a measure confirming and enforcing 
the charters which had been called in question. But 
Birmingham had still to obtain a complete system of local 
self-government. The charter left untouched the powers 
given at various times by special Acts of Parliament to 
several self-appointed bodies — viz., the Commissioners 
of the Birmingham Street Act, the Commissioners of 
Deritend and Bordesley, of Duddeston and Nechells, and 
the Surveyors of Deritend and Edgbaston. The Corpora- 


tion had regained control of the police, — a Government 
police force having been created during the time the 
validity of the charter was in dispute ; but for ten years its 
general work was crippled and circumscribed by the exist- 
ence of these conflicting and irresponsible authorities. It 
was not until 185 1 that the rule of the Corporation was 
extended over the whole area of the town, and that it could 
fully enter upon its work. 

From this time until 1870, when Mr Chamberlain be- 
came one of its members, " economy " seems to liave been 
the predominant note in the policy of the Council, and 
little was done beyond its everyday routine duties. The 
"new spirit" was beginning to assert itself, however, in 
the voices of men who only needed leadership to carry 
their broader views into effect. In Mr Chamberlain the 
leader was quickly found, and having been elected Mayor 
in November 1873, he lost no time in beginning the work 
he had set himself to do by bringing forward a proposal 
for the municipalisation of the gas supply. Mr Chamber- 
lain's advocacy of this proposal was so effective that the 
resolution he moved in its favour, in January 1874, was 
carried in the Council by fifty-four votes to two. Before 
moving this resolution, Mr Chamberlain had held com- 
munication with the directors of the two gas companies 
concerned, and ascertained the basis on which they would 
be prepared to negotiate the transfer of their undertakings 
to the town. Under the terms proposed, and eventually 
embodied in the Act of Parliament, the Corporation were 
to pay the sum of ;£4S 0,000 for the property of the 
Birmingham Gas Light and Coke Company, and annuities 
of 10 per cent, to the shareholders of the Birmingham and 
Stafford Gas Light Company on ;^3 20,000 of its capital, 


and 7 per cent, on ;^35o,2oo, making in all an annual 
charge of ;^58,2oo. These annuities represented the 
maximum dividends which had been paid to the share- 
holders on the two classes of stock. In the course of a 
speech, delivered at the Council House in March, explain- 
ing these terms, Mr Chamberlain estimated that "the 
Corporation might rely on making ;;^iS,ooo to ;^20,ooo 
the first year, and in a few years it must of necessity make 
something like ;^2 5,000 per annum, even without an 
increase in the sale of gas." Assuming the normal increase 
in the consumption of gas, Mr Chamberlain estimated that 
in fourteen years there would be a gain of ;;^7o,ooo per 
annum. This estimate was made on the assumption that 
no change took place in the price of gas or in the cost 
of coal. The figures must have brought conviction to the 
minds of the councillors, for only one voted against the 

^e§olution authorising the purchase on the terms stated. 

^here was not the same practical unanimity among the 
ratepayers. The town's meeting, called to consider the 
proposal, ratified it by "a large majority," but a poll 
was demanded, and of 4000 ratepayers who troubled to 
vote, over 12 op were against the scheme. 

Mr Chamberlain's optimism has, of course, been more 
than justified by results. So well, indeed, have his pre- 
dictions of the financial success of municipalisation verified 
themselves, that to-day it would be difficult to find a 
Birmingham ratepayer opposed to the policy he initiated. 
In the first year a profit of ;^34,i22 was made; in 1889, 
just 14 « years after the purchase, the surplus amounted 
to ;£7o,337 on the year's working. In the 17 years that 
have elapsed since the companies were bought out on 
such liberal terms, the Gas Committee have made a total 


profit for the town of ;;^7 14,000, or an average profit of 
;^4 2,000 per annum. 

But this is only half the story. In his estimates Mr 
Chamberlain did not contemplate any reduction in the 
price of gas. As a matter of fact there have, at various 
times, been considerable reductions. The average net 
price charged by the two companies in 1875 was about 
3s, id. The next year it was reduced to 2s. lod., in 1879 
it was further reduced to 2s. 7d., in 1881 to 2s. 4d., in 
1884 to 2s. 2d., and in 1885 to 2s. id., while for the years 
1887-93 it was 2s. 2d. Since 1885, moreover, there has 
been a yearly saving on the cost of street lighting amount- 
ing in the aggregate to over ;;^8o,ooo; while as regards 
the whole period, all classes of consumers have enjoyed an 
improved supply. In 1889, too, an eight hours day was 
conferred on the workmen employed by the Gas Com- 
mittee, numbering nearly 1500 in summer and over 2000 
in winter, without any reduction in wages, while means 
have been taken to render less disagreeable what for the 
most part must necessarily be disagreeable labour. One 
little instance will illustrate the greater thoughtfulness 
which has been given by the Committee to the welfare 
of the men. Owing to the great heat in which they are 
compelled to work, stokers and others need to frequently 
quench their thirst. At one timS they did this, in the 
intervals between the twenty minutes' shifts in which they 
work, at the public-house, which is almost invariably to 
be found close to the gates of a large gasworks. Some 
time ago the Committee, after some inquiry into the 
best kind of beverages for the purpose, decided to provide 
at their various works an unlimited supply of oatmeal 
water for the free use of the men, and this has been so 


well appreciated that the formerly crowded public-houses 
have lost the greater part of their custom. 

It may be a matter of some surprise, in view of this 
experience with the gas, that Birmingham's municipality 
has not adopted a "forward" policy with respect to 
electric lighting. Instead of keeping the supply of the 
new light in its own hands, the Corporation has sur- 
rendered its legal rights for thirty years to a limited 
liability company. Twelve years ago the Council adopted 
a report of the Gas Committee, who have given much 
consideration to the subject, recommending that, on 
satisfactory conditions, support be given to the applica- 
tions of one or more of the companies for power to supply 
one or more limited areas in the city, and there has been 
no deviation from this attitude. It is justified on the 
ground that for a long time to come a supply of electric 
light for the whole area of Birmingham could not but 
prove unremunerative, and that, on the other hand, the 
Corporation would not be justified in carrying on the 
undertaking for the benefit of only a part of the city. 
As it is, however, only the occupiers in the central part 
of the city have the opportunity of using the electric 
light ; and if a profit is made on this partial supply, the 
profit would, in the hands of the Corporation, have been 
applied to the relief of the rates throughout the city. 
Having in view the success which has attended municipal 
electric lighting in other places, one cannot help thinking 
that in this matter the Birmingham Corporation has not 
displayed its characteristic vigour and enterprise. 

The striking success which Mr Chamberlain achieved 
in the municipal arena cannot be better illustrated than 
by the story of Birmingham's water supply. Its munici- 


palisation had long been a favourite project with some 
of the leading citizens. As long ago as i85i»a clause 
was inserted in the Local Improvement Act providing 
that "the Council may provide such a supply of water 
as may be proper and sufficient for the purposes of the 
Act and for private use," and further, that on giving 
twelve months' notice the Council might buy the under- 
taking of the Waterworks Company. When, in 1854, 
the Corporation sought to use this power, opposition 
among the ratepayers so strongly asserted itself that the 
project was abandoned. The reasons that were given 
for this opposition read very curiously now in the light 
of Birmingham's subsequent experience, and in com- 
parison with the criticism which is still made on similar 
projects of the London County Council. 

Thus discouraged, the reformers held their peace ^ till 
1869, when Mr Alderman Avery, who is remembered 
in Birmingham as the father of the Waterworks Com- 
mittee, moved resolutions having the acquirement of the 
water supply for their object. These resolutions mis- 
carried, mainly, it would seem, in consequence of personal 
feelings prevailing in the Council. Yet when Mr Cham- 
berlain brought forward the subject in December 1874, 
during the second year of his Mayoralty, his resolution 
was carried without opposition both in the Council and 
at the town's meeting. The terms of purchase were 
arranged on much the same basis as in the case of the 
gas companies, and in accordance with these terms the 
Corporation is responsible for perpetual annuities to the 
amount of ;^S4,49i, the total price given being equivalent 
to the sum of ;^ 1,3 5 0,000. Liberal as these terms were, 
the bargain has proved to be an exceedingly good one for 


Birmingham. In accordance with a principle laid down 
by Mr Chamberlain, and subsequently ratified by a vote 
of the Council, no attempt is made to give relief to the 
rates out of profits on the water supply, it being con- 
sidered that the cheapness, abundance, and quality of 
the water are of supreme importance. Considerations 
of health thus superseding any question of profit, the 
Waterworks Committee has been content with the forma- 
tion of a reserve fund of ^^50,000 and an annual con- 
tribution to the rates of the interest on this sum — viz., 
;^2ooo. Apart from this, the profits have been ab- 
sorbed or anticipated by reductions in the charges and 
improvements in the supply. Since 1876, the year of 
purchase, the water rents throughout the city have been 
reduced by sums which amount in the aggregate to 
about ;^33,ooo per annum, and at the same time there 
has been a capital expenditure of ;;^572,ooo. In 1876, 
with a population of about 380,000, Birmingham had 
a supply from the companies of 3,031 million gallons, 
or a daily average of 8.30 million gallons ; in 1893, with 
a population of 487,000, the city has a supply of 61 11 
million gallons, or a daily average of 16.74 gallons. 
While the supply has doubled, the income from the water 
rents has increased from ;£93,S2 7 in 1876, to ;£i 44,541 
in 1893. 

With admirable promptitude and forethought the Muni- 
cipality has already taken in hand a scheme for such an 
increase in the supply as will keep pace with constant 
increase of population. 

The scheme is familiar to many Londoners because 
it secures for Birmingham a Welsh water-shed which some 
members of the London County Council already had 


in view as likely to afford a new source of supply for the 
metropolis in the near future. The opposition offered by 
the London County Council to the Birmingham Bill in the 
session of 1892, natural enough as it was, could not be 
sustained, even if London had then been in a position to 
own a water supply of its own, in face of the facts brought 
forward on behalf of Birmingham. It is estimated^that by 
1 900 the Midland capital will need a daily supjny of 2 1 
million gallons, and in 191 5 of 30 million gallons, while 
in fifty years' time 60,000 gallons a day will not be too 
much. This is the quantity which, it is thought, can be 
taken from the Elan and the Claerwen ; and the masonry 
conduit is to be made capable of conveying this quantity 
of water to Birmingham, which i"^ 80 miles distant. As a 
first instalment, however, only 24 milHon gallons will be 
obtained from Wales at an estimated cost of a little over 
;^3, 600,000. Even a work of this magnitude and of such 
benefit to the next generation of Birmingham people will 
not impose on Birmingham water consumers any burden 
as great as that borne under the reign of private enterprise. 
It is estimated by Sir Thomas Martineau, the Chairman 
of the Water Committee, that all the charges involved by 
the scheme will be met by the re-imposition for a few 
years of ;^2 4,000 out of the ;^3 3,000 per year, remitted 
in water rents. This is partly because as soon as part of 
the scheme is completed there will be a saving in the cost 
of pumping of about ;^2 0,000 a year. Still, in view of 
these figures, it is pretty evident that such a bold and 
statesmanlike plan of coping with one of the greatest 
difficulties arising from the rapid growth of cities, could 
hardly have been conceived or carried out, if the water 
supply had remained in private hands. 


Birmingham's finest example, however, of municipal 
work is probably to be found in the great " improvement 
scheme," begun in 1878 and not yet altogether completed, 
by means of which one of the handsomest streets in the 
country, the admiration of every visitor to the city, took 
the place of a wretched "slum area," and a splendid 
service was rendered to the moral and physical health of 
a great number of people. It was the third great under- 
taking entered upon by the Council under the inspiration 
of Mr Chamberlain's faith in municipal government, and 
was the direct outcome of the Artisans' Dwellings Act of 
1875, ^^ ^^^ framing and passing of which Birmingham 
had taken some considerable share. On Mr Chamberlain's 
motion a committee of the Council was appointed in July 
of that year to receive representations as to any insanitary 
area in the borough, and submit a scheme for its improve- 
ment, as was provided in the Act. It was well known 
that Mr Chamberlain's action was directed against a large 
area in the centre of Birmingham which, with its crowded 
population, its miserable dwellings, its defiance of all the 
conditions of health, had long been regarded by every 
thoughtful citizen as a disgrace as well as a danger to the 
city. " It might run a great street," said Mr Chamberlain, 
explaining in the course of his speech ihe scheme he had 
in his own mind, " as broad as a Parisian boulevard, from 
New Street to Aston Road ; it might open up a street 
such as Birmingham had not got, and was almost stifling 
for the want of — for all the best streets weje too narrow. 
The Council might demolish the houses on each side of 
the street, and let or sell the frontage land, and arrange 
for rebuilding workmen's houses behind, taking the best 
advantage of the sites, and building them in accordance 


with the latest sanitary knowledge and the requirements 
of the Medical Officer of Health. ^ 

The scheme thus indicated was adopted by the 
Council and approved by the town, the absence of opposi- 
tion doubtless being mainly due to Mr Chamberlain's 
eloquent advocacy. He delivered several enthusiastic 
speeches on the subject. Such was the earnestness with 
which it was entered upon by the Council, that when a 
technical difficulty arose with regard to funds for the 
purchase of property, several of its members and others 
guaranteed an advance of ;^S 0,000 (Mr Chamberlain mak- 
ing himself responsible for ;^ 10,000) rather than that any 
delay should occur. Yet it was no small task which the 
Municipality had set itself, involving a gross expenditure of 
nearly a million and a half sterling, the purchase of nearly 
4000 houses, and the rehousing of the greater part of a 
population of 16,500. The total expenditure on the 
scheme till the end of 1889 was about ;^i, 65 7,000, of 
which, however, over ;£ 100,000 had been made good by 
the income derived from the letting of surplus land. In 
that year the rent of this land amounted to ;^33,s88, 
while the rents of premises still standing on the uncleared 
land produced an additional gross income of about 
;^2 0,000. As the result, the scheme now involves a cost 
to the ratepayers, in the shape of interest on loans and 
contributions to sinking fund of about ;^2 5,000 per 
annum. Inasmuch as the loans will be repaid in 30 years, 
and the building leases for which the land has been let 
will fall in at the end of 80 years, it is certain that Corpor- 
ation Street and the adjacent streets will prove a splendid 
heritage to future generations of Birmingham people. 

In the meantime, however, there can hardly be two 


opinions about the good value which the city has obtained 
for the large amount of money it has expended- In the 
making of Corporation Street it has obtained a fine street 
improvement; in the reconstruction of the condemned 
area, it has also obtained a remarkable sanitary refdrm. 
During the three years preceding the beginning of the 
scheme, the average death-rate over this area was as high 
as S3 per looo. For the three years subsequent to 
its partial completion the death-rate was only 21 per 
1000. As an outcome of the scheme, moreover, the 
Municipality has been led to make an interesting and so 
far most successful experiment in providing dwellings for 
the artisan class. It was at [one time the hope of the 
Improvement Committee that part of its surplus land 
would be taken on lease by private persons for the erection 
thereon of this class of property. But as the result of 
private enterprise only sixty-two new workmen's dwellings 
came into existence on the sites of the old slums and 
rookeries. It was then recommended by the Improve- 
ment Committee that the Corporation should expend 
;^S2So on the erection of a block of "model dwellings," 
as they are known in London. But the " flat " had 
never yet been introduced into Birmingham ; and in 
view of the strong prejudice which was known to exist 
on the part of the Birmingham artisan in favour of 
having " a house to himself," the recommendation was not 
adopted by the Council. As an alternative, the Council 
resolved on the erection of twenty-two cottages in the 
place of a street of insanitary "back-to-back" houses 
which had come into its possession under the Improvement 
scheme. These cottages contain five rooms, and all 
possible provision for the health of their occupants ; they 


were neatly and attractively built at a cost of ;£4000, and 
were all very speedily let to families of the class for whom 
they were designed, at a weekly rental of 5 s. 6d. per week. 
Seeing that they are quite near the centre of Birmingham, 
and that they have been liberally provided with open space, 
it was a matter of some surprise how these cottages could 
be let by the Corporation at these rents without serious 
loss on the ground value. It is estimated that after making 
the necessary deductions in the shape of rates and taxes, 
the rents yield a net income sufficient, when interest and 
sinking fund are provided for, to pay an average ground rent 
of I id. per square yard per annum for seventy-five years. 
The market value of the land is believed to be a little more 
than this ; but, on the other hand, something has been 
gained by making immediate use of it, instead of it being 
left vacant for several years while its full value was 

It will be some years before Birmingham has an oppor- 
tunity of municipalising the tram service, the first of the 
leases granted by the Corporation to the tramway companies 
not expiring till 1903. The Council has laid down three 
principles with reference to tramways : — 

1. The Corporation must maintain direct and complete 
control of their streets — hence they must construct and 
repair the tramways by themselves or by contractors 
under them. 

2. The rates should not contribute towards the support 
of the tramways or be saddled with any loss. 

3. The Corporation should make no profit out of the 
tramway concessions during the first fourteen years of the 
leases, but the public should have advantages in cheap 
travelling and efficient service. 


In accordance with these principles, over 33 miles of 
tramway has been constructed and leased to four com- 
panies at rentals which are equivalent to 4 per cent, on 
the cost of construction during the first fourteen years, and 
5 per cent, during the last seven years. The lines having 
cost in the aggregate ;^i69,656, the rents now amount 
to ;^6928. The companies are further required to make 
annual contributions to a sinking fund, which form a total 
of ;^4683, and the actual cost of all repairs as certified 
by the City Surveyor is repaid by them. In 1892-3 the 
Municipal Income from tramways exceeded the expendi- 
ture by ;f 5743, and when the leases expire, the city will 
come into possession of its tramway system quite free of 

In the supply of fresh air, municipal activity in 
Birmingham has exerted itself as actively as in that of pure 
water. It is said that in all parts of the city a few minutes' 
walk will bring one to a public park or recreation ground. 
Fourteen in number, they contain an area of 360 acres, or 
about an acre for every 1300 of the population. Such has 
been the local jealousy in the matter, that if one ward 
obtained an open space a demand immediately arose for 
another space from the adjoining ward, and hence it has 
come about that no part of the city is without its " lung." 
This ample provision of fresh air and open space is of 
course largely owing to civic patriotism as well as expendi- 
ture out of the rates. Canon Hill Park and Victoria Park, 
two of the largest parks, for instance, were the gift of Miss 
Ryland, the daughter of a Birmingham millionaire, whose 
fortune was largely made out of Birmingham ground rents ; 
while Aston Park and one or two others were purchased with 
the aid of public subscriptions. The Corporation' itself, 


however, has incurred a capital expenditure of no less than 
^90,000 in providing the people with the means of open-air 
recreation. One of Birmingham's most recent acquisitions 
has been two of the Warwickshire hills as a place for 
excursions and picnics, the distance from the city being 
about nine miles. 

Under the management of the same Committee as the 
parks are the municipal baths, which, it is scarcely an 
exaggeration to say, are making the rising generation of the 
city a race of swimmers. The central establishment was 
built by the Corporation under the powers given it by 
the newly-passed Act as long ago as 1851. Two other 
establishments were added in the 'sixties and another two 
in 1883, so that at the present time the whole of Birming- 
ham may be said to be well provided with opportunities of 
practising the virtue which is next to godliness. The total 
capital expenditure has been about ;^7 0,000, and last year 
the working expenses were about ;;^7ooo, as against receipts 
of jCsSoo, At this cost of ;;^ 15 00 per year nearly all the 
school children of the city have the use of the swimming- 
baths at a charge of one penny and one halfpenny each ; 
the promotion of swimming clubs has been encouraged by 
the offer of specially low terms ; while the ordinary charges 
range from only one penny for a cold ablution to one 
shilling for a Turkish bath. The value of this municipal 
undertaking to such a city as Birmingham is not to be 
lightly considered, in view of the fact that last year the 
number of bathers reached the total of 341,658. 

As regards the still more important subject of food 
supply, Birmingham is in an exceptionally favoured position. 
It has in all six markets, and each is the property of the 
Corporation, The purchase of the market rights in 1824 


from the lord of the manor was the one great act which 
distinguished the history of its predecessors, the Birming- 
ham Street Commissioners. The price paid was ;£^i 2,500 ; 
the market rights are now estimated to be worth more than 
;^3oo,ooo ; and every year, after all expenses have been 
met, the markets yield a net profit to the Corporation of 
from ;f 5000 to ;^6ooo, the gross revenue being nearly 
;£'i8,ooo. Since the Corporation took over the markets 
in 185 1 the sum of about ;^i 00,000 has been spent in 
extending and improving them, the tolls have been 
reduced, and there has been, of course, an immense 
increase in the amount of the products sold in them. In 
recent years the Markets Committee, it should be added, 
have imposed as rigid a system of inspection and supervision 
over the sale of food throughout the city generally as it was 
always able to exercise over that brought to the markets. 

How has this spirited municipal policy, in regard to fresh 
air, pure water, sound food, expressed itself in the health of 
the city ? There is only one definite test, unfortunately — 
the death-rate. In this respect Birmingham was wont to 
compare none too well with London and other centres of 
population, but in the last fifteen years there has been a 
marked improvement. In 1874 the death-rate was 26.8, 
which was about the average for the preceding ten years ; 
in 1892 it was 20 per 1000, and in some months since it 
has been as low as 19. 

So much for the part which the Municipality plays in 
the promotion of the physical health of the city. With 
free libraries, art schools and picture galleries, museums 
and technical schools, its work in advancing the citizens' 
intellectual welfare is scarcely less important. The Free 
I^ibraries Act was adopted in Birmingham in i860, and 


a noteworthy feature in its subsequent administration has 
been an increase, by the vote of the citizens, of the amount 
of the rate which can be levied, being now 1.4 id. in the 
pound, and yielding a revenue of ;^i 1,945. With this 
revenue and the assistance of voluntary contributions of 
books, the Council has been able to establish seven 
libraries, having nearly 190,000 volumes on their shelves, 
and issuing to readers in the course of 1893 considerably 
over a million volumes. The splendid Art Gallery, which 
now forms one of the architectural features of Birmingham, 
had its inception in 1867 in a small collection of pictures 
hung in one of the rooms of the central library. Such has 
been the civic spirit shown by Birmingham's wealthy 
citizens, that a collection — which includes a number of 
works by David Cox, one of Birmingham's most renowned 
sons, and several by such artists as Etty, Sir John Gilbert, 
Sir Frederick ,..T .eighton, H. S. Marks, Henry Moore, 
Holman Hunt, Millais, Burne Jones, and Madox Browne 
— has been acquired by the Corporation at comparatively 
little cost. The net expenditure of about ;^ 10,000 per 
year made by the Committee includes the cost of a central 
Art School and a number of branch schools, which, in 
consequence of the low fees charged, are attended by over 
3000 pupils, almost entirely of the artisan class. The 
courses of instruction given in the schools include all 
subjects having an artistic bearing on the local trades and 
industries. Further, when the increased liquor duties 
provided it with funds which could be devoted to this 
purpose, the Corporation at once made provision for 
education of a purely technical character. Two years ago 
it established two technical schools in temporary premises, 
pending the erection of a suitable building. Over 1500 


students are already in attendance at these schools ; the cost 
to the Municipality last year being ;^73o8, of which ;£'64io 
was transferred from the Exchequer Contribution account, 
' s^d £91^ from the borough rates. The students' fees 
came to less than ;^Soo. A fine building is now being 
erected in a central position, which is estimated to cost, 
with the site, about ;^6o,ooo, and in this building, when 
completed in 1895, technical instruction will be given 
during the day as well as in the evening. This structure 
is expected to be a noteworthy addition to a group of 
buildings whichi owing their origin to municipal enterprise, 
have had a marked effect on the architecture of Birming- 
ham. The Art Gallery, the Free Library, and the Council 
House, forming part of the square which serves as a 
memorial to the municipal labours of Mr Chamberlain, 
must be valuable to Birmingham, if only as setting a high 
standard of architectural excellence. 

In London it is rather difficult to realise the pride taken 
by Birmingham citizens in these municipal institutions — 
a pride which so frequently finds expression in gifts and 
bequests made to increase their value and usefulness. 
There seems a general feeling that in these matters of 
education, of artistic and technical training, the community 
is doing, in an organised form, what could otherwise not 
be done at all, or if done by private individuals, only at a 
much greater expense and with far less efficiency. Now 
and again there may, indeed, be a murmur of protest. A 
short time ago, for example, the Royal Birmingham Society 
of Artists, an old-established association which, in its time, 
has doubtless been of excellent service, sent a communica- 
tion to the Art Committee of the Corporatioti, complaining 
of the counter-attraction of the annual loan exhibitions 


organised by the Committee to their own exhibitions. 
The Committee admitted that the Society's exhibitions 
might well suffer from the competition, seeing that the 
exhibitions at the Art Gallery were free, whereas for the 
others a charge was made ; but they could only point out 
that they were fulfilling a duty to the public at large ; and, 
replying to the suggestion of the Society that the municipal 
exhibition should be held at some other period of the year, 
explain that most of the best pictures could be obtained 
on loan only in the autumn. This little incident brought 
the municipal principle in direct conflict with that of 
individual action, but remembering the 400,000 visitors 
who enjoyed the collection of the works of Burne Jones 
and Watts which the Committee made in 1885, the 
260,000 who came to see the pre-Raphaelite collection in 
1 89 1, and the quarter of a million who attended the 
exhibition of old masters in 1888, the Art Committee 
and the town at large had every reason to courageously 
vindicate the former. 

That municipal action in Birmingham should, during the 
last twenty years, have been so rapidly and successfully 
extended, practically without opposition on the part of any 
section of the citizens, must be largely attributed to admir- 
able financial management. Notwithstanding the great 
increase in its sphere of usefulness, the rate for which the 
Council is responsible remains pretty much the same. In 
1873 ^^ w^ 3S- 8.3d. in the pound; in 1893 it was 
3s. 8.4id. in the pound. As compared with the time 
when the Corporation obtained undivided control over the 
city, and Birmingham first entered upon its full municipal 
life, the ratepayer is in a still more satisfactory position, 
the rate in 1853 being 3s. 9d. in the pound. Lest mis- 


apprehension should ensue in any reader's mind, let me 
state at once that these figures do not include the School 
Board rate nor the Poor rate, as to which the Corporation, 
of course, has nothing to do. If these, are also taken into 
account, what is the burden of the Birmingham ratepayer 
as compared with that of the London ratepayer? The 
School Board rate is as high as in London — viz., i i.95d. in 
the pound. The Poor rate varies in the seven different 
parishes and hamlets into which the city is divided, the 
inequality in the burden of pauperism being hardly less 
glaring in Birmingham than in London. In the parish of 
Birmingham it was, in 1893, is. lod. in the pound, 
whereas in the villa district of Edgbaston it was only is., 
and in the hamlets of Saltley, Washwood, and Little 
Bromwich, which were added to the city in 1892, when the 
only extension of the municipal boundaries that had taken 
place since 1851 was accomplished, the rate is only lod. 
in the pound. In the parish of Birmingham, which con- 
tains, of course, by far the greater part of tlie population of 
the city, the total burden of the ratepayer thus amounts to 
6s. 9d. in the pound, whereas in Edgbaston it is 5 s. iid. 
Moreover, when the extensions of municipal government 
took place in 1892, the Corporation did not obtain power 
to levy the same rate over the new additions to its area, 
and, consequently, in the small districts of Saltley and 
Washwood, the total rates amount to only 5 s. 3d., and in 
Little Bromwich to 4s. 3d. Whether we take the maxi- 
mum rate of 6s. 9d. in the parish of Birmingham, or the 
minimum rate of 4s. 3d. in the hamlet of Little Bromwich, 
it compares well, I think, with the parishes of London, if 
the relative services rendered to the ratepayer in retiurn for 
his money is compared. In the parish of Birmingham 


itself the aggregate rate has increased by only gd. as com- 
pared with the year 1852, an increase which is more than 
accounted for by the School Board's precept. 

Birmingham could assiuredly not have obtained so well- 
equipped a municipal life at this cost were it not, Jirsf^ for 
the savings effected on its municipal ownership of the 
markets and tramways and the gas and the water; and 
second, its judicious financial arrangement. With the first 
I have already dealt. As to the second, the Corporation's 
capital expenditure amounted on March 31st, 1893, to 
;^9,35i,ooo in round figures, of which nearly a million 
and three-quarters had been provided for at that date. 
The average rate of interest payable on Corporation stock, 
&c., the gas and water annuities being capitalised at 25 
years' purchase, is ;;^3.ii per cent 

In Mr Powell Williams, M.P., Mr Chamberlain had a 
valuable auxiliary in justifying the financial soundness of 
his schemes, and to him is largely due the satisfactory state 
of affairs revealed by these figures. For several years Mr 
Powell Williams devoted himself to the consolidation of 
the Corporation loans and the reconstruction of its finances, 
with the object of reducing the annual charge to the rate- 
payers, and in 1880-81 his purpose was effected and a Bill 
passed through Parliament. 

It will have been seen that Birmingham's Municipality is 
now responsible for the repayment of loans, &c., amounting 
to about ;;^7,6 29,000, as compared with only ;^6 15, 2 65 
in 1872, and only;^263,273 in 1852. The great increase 
took place, of course, in the decade when Mr Chamberlain's 
policy was in full swing, that is to say, 1872-82. In that 
period the amount increased more than ten-fold, whereas 
from 1882 to 1892 the increase was only half a million. 


It was an increase, of course, of almost entirely a remuner- 
ative character, as is shown by the enormous rise in the 
municipal income from ;^226,258 in 1872 to ;£"!, 447,223 
in 1893, and in the balance of assets over liabilities from 
-£3S5»32o to ;^i, 72 1,988. I have had occasion more 
than once to refer to the public spirit of Birmingham 
citizens in the giving of their wealth to the advancement of 
some civic purpose. Perhaps more eloquent than all such 
figures in explaining its municipal success is the simple 
fact that when I was last in Birmingham a retired trades- 
man had just made a free gift to the Corporation of the 
business premises he no longer required. 


A New Departure in Municipal Government — The Ship Canal and the 
Manchester Corporation — A Forward Policy in Municipal 
Affairs — The Water Supply and the Thirlmere Scheme- 
Swimming Baths in Summer and Gymnasia in Winter — A 
Municipal Supply of Hydraulic Power — Cellar Dwellings and 
Insanitary Districts — Tardy Action in dealing with them — 
Municipal Tenement Houses — The Ship Canal and Sanitation — 
The Chat Moss and Carrington Moss Experiments — Municipal 
Gas and Electric Light-^The Municipal Technical School — ^The 
Pioneer of the Free library Movement — Distinctive Features of 
the Manchester Libraries — ^The Instructive Story of the Art 
Gallery— A Town Hall which astonishes Londoners — The 
Deficiency in Open Spaces — Municipal Ownership of Markets 
and Tramways — ^The Rise in Manchester Rates — Increased 
Expenditure and its Causes — ^An Enormous Extension of the 
Municipal Area — A Tribute to the Corporation's Good Work. 

By its action with regard to the recently-completed Ship 
Canal, the Manchester Corporation has given its work a 
new and greatly extended public importance. In becom- 
ing part-proprietor of this great undertaking, it not merely 
carried municipal enterprise a long way further than it 
had yet been carried ; but by saving the scheme which 
has made Manchester a port, it stored up for itself in the 
near future a heavy increase in the burden of its respon- 
sibilities. If the expectations of the promoters of the 
canal are but partially realised, there must be a rapid 
increase in the population, mainly of the labouring class, 
whose poverty and ignorance make so large a call on the 

wisdom and activity of municipal government. 



There can be but little doubt that the canal would not 
be un fait accompli to-day if the Corporation had not 
undertaken its completion. At the end of 1890 the Ship 
Canal Company had practically exhausted nearly the whole 
of its capital of ten millions and a half sterling, it was 
found impossible to raise more money in the market, and 
the undertaking was only about two-thirds completed. In 
these circumstances the Corporation was appealed to. 
What was it to do? Here was an undertaking of the 
greatest public importance to the city as a whole, which 
private enterprise had failed to bring to a satisfactory con- 
clusion. In it had been invested the savings of the poor 
as well as the capital of the rich. The collapse of the 
great project meant serious loss to very many Manchester 
citizens. On the other hand, the Corporation could 
borrow millions on the security of the rates at about 3 J 
per cent, and the Ship Canal Company were willing to 
pay 4i per cent, for a mortgage. With the universal 
approval of the citizens, the Corporation advanced the 
money, four and a half millions sterling, which completed 
the canal. 

It is, of course, the general belief of Manchester 
men that the making of the canal will greatly pro- 
mote the prosperity of their city. This much being 
granted, it is obvious that in completing the Ship Canal 
the Corporation has rendered its greatest service to 
the people of Manchester, and given a most striking 
example of the value of municipal institutions. The Cor- 
poration having embarked on this policy of joint-ownei:- 
ship, some of its members had to give much personal 
service in carrying it out. When the first loan of three 
millions sterling was made, five members of the Corpor- 


ation were added to the Board of Directors. When the 
second loan of a million and a half was granted, the 
Corporation claimed and obtained the right to nominate 
a majority of the Directors, who were increased in number 
to twenty-one. Sir J. J. Harwood, a leading member of 
the Corporation, was appointed Deputy-chairman; and 
upon him, during the last year or so of the construction 
of the canal, the burden of control largely fell. It is not 
too much to say that it is to the experience and ability of 
her municipal administrators, as well as to the amplitude 
of her municipal funds, that Manchester owes the accom- 
plishment of her favourite project. There is a big gap 
between this feat of municipal government and the petti- 
fogging work of the Borough Reeve and Commissioners 
of Police. Yet, until last year, Manchester had an Alder- 
man who was one of the Police Commissioners, and 
remembered clearly how nearly all his colleagues, aided 
by a small section of the citizens, bitterly opposed the 
incorporation of Manchester, which, for the practical 
purpose of the election of a Council, they succeeded in 
delaying till the end of 1838. 

In truth, the bold, energetic spirit which overcame the 
difficulties of the Ship Canal has animated the work of the 
Manchester Corporation for some years past. It was this 
spirit which municipalised Lake Thirlmere for the sake 
of a good water supply, which added the supply of 
hydraulic power to the things undertaken by the Corpora- 
tion in the general interests of the citizens, which, after 
years of delay, caused a beginning to be made in the 
"clearance" of insanitary areas, which, lastly, supplemented 
its ownership of gas by that of electric light. 

The Corporation has been the owner of the water 


supply since 1847, when, at the cost of a little over half 
a million sterling, it took over the property of a company 
popularly known as the "Stone Pipe Company." Its 
supply of 3^ million gallons a day was miserably insuffi- 
cient for the population, and in the course of a few 
years it was increased by the Corporation to 24 millions. 
This quantity would have sufficed for some years still to 
come, but in taking over the business of the Manchester 
and Salford Company the Corporation incurred a legal 
responsibility for the water supply of the townships 
adjoining, making in all a population of about a million. 
Having several times increased the supply at consider- 
able expense, the Corporation, about 1876, resolved to 
take such measures as would secure to this population 
for a generation to come an ample supply of the piurest 
and best water obtainable ; hence the great and, at that 
time, novel scheme for "tapping" a Cumberland lake 
100 miles distant .This scheme was hotly opposed in 
Parliament on the instigation of Carlyle, Ruskin, Prof. 
Seeley, and other distinguished people, who feared that 
the construction of waterworks would spoil the beauty of 
Wordsworth's country; but it is significant that in Man- 
chester itself there was from first to last hardly any 
objection raised — ^in the Council it was sanctioned by 
forty-two votes to two, and when a poll was demanded 
only 3,500 burgesses voted against the scheme, while 
over 43,000 voted in its favour. 

With the completion of its works at Thirlmere, the 
Corporation will have increased the daily supply by 
10,000,000 gallons. The supply from Thirlmere can be 
further increased to 50,000,000 gallons a day by instal- 
ments of 10,000,000 gallons, as required, each instalment 


costing an additional half a million sterling. When the 
full capacity of Thirlmere is used, Manchester and its 
district will have brought to it, from a distance of nearly 100 
miles, 50,000,000 gallons of water daily, and this supply 
would hold good for 150 days if no rain should fall at 
Thirlmere during that time. It should be added that the 
Corporation charges ordinary consumers of water a rate 
of 9d. in the pound, and apart from its value in trade, it 
is estimated that such consumers save about ;^ 100,000 
a year in soap and soda, owing to the exceptional softness 
of the water. 

The provision made for the future in the matter of 
water will probably prove by no means too bountiful in 
view of the increase in population which the construction 
of the Ship Canal is likely to bring about. In the mean- 
time, it is easy to understand how well the Manchester 
Corporation appreciates the importance of its water supply. 
In this great smoky city frequent ablutions are an absolute 
necessity if there is to be a sense of comfort, not to say 
cleanliness ; and there is good reason for the liberal allow- 
ance which the Corporation makes for domestic purposes 
of fifteen gallons per head daily. Cheap and well-appointed 
municipal baths, in seven different buildings, are fairly 
accessible to the working classes in all parts of the city. 
Two of the swimming baths, it is worthy of note, are 
converted during the winter into gymnasia : swimming is 
so little in favour during the three coldest months of the 
year as compared with [gymnastic exercise ; and the cost of 
the conversion is so small, that the plan is likely to be 
adopted at all the other establishments. Manchester was 
late in adopting the Public Baths and Washhouses Act — 
it was 1877 before the Act came into force — ^but the 


Corporation has shown great energy in making good this 
omission in its municipal life. 

In another enterprise to which its splendid water supply 
is of great value, Manchester has set an example to other 
manufacturing cities. In the Manchester warehouses and 
factories hydraulic power has, of course, long been ex- 
tensively used, but on a system which was wasteful in the 
extreme, each consumer having to provide for himself the 
power he required. At length, a company proposed to 
undertake a general supply. But it appeared to many 
members of the Waterworks Committee that this was a 
matter which should be as much in the hands of the 
Municipality as the supply of water itself. To distribute 
hydraulic power from a common centre involved breaking 
open the roads, and eventually a reduction in the quantity 
of water supplied by the Corporation for generating steam 
power and for working hoists and lifts. So, three years 
ago. Parliamentary powers were obtained, and this year 
the construction of the hydraulic power station was 
finished. It contains three elevated tanks, each holding 
a quarter of a million gallons, and the Corporation is now 
prepared to supply power of from 4000 gallons to 
300,000 gallons per quarter. The annual charge varies 
from j£S to ;^42, los., and the undertaking promises to 
be as remunerative to the ratepayers as it is beneficial 
to the consumers of water power. 

It must be confessed that in improving the dwellings 
of its poor the Manchester Corporation has been rather 
tardy in recognising the possibilities of municipal action. 
In 1844, a terrible account was given of Manchester 
in this respect by witnesses appearing before the Select 
Committee of the House of Commons, which was then 


enquiring into the health of popular towns. It was stated 
that 15,000 of the population — ^which then represented 
1 2 per cent, of the working class — were living in cellars. 
Street improvements, the construction of railway stations, 
etc., has cleared away a considerable part of the property 
this statement Referred to; but, on the other hand, the 
provision made for the people thus unhoused has been 
quite inadequate. In consequence, the property which 
remained has been more and more over-crowded, and for 
many years the Corporation never appeared to realise that 
it should and could make good the failure of private 
enterprise. At length, the continued high death-rate of 
the city forced its attention to the question. The reports 
made by the Officer of Health in 1881-84 conclusively 
showed that the high death-rate was due, not to the un- 
healthiness of Manchester as a whole, but to "those 
districts where the streets were narrowest and leading to 
courts and alleys through covered passages to old and 
dilapidated back-to-back houses, with low ceilings, damp 
floors and walls, rotten spouts and windows." In Ancoats, 
where most of the old, insanitary property is situated, 
according to another medical authority, the death-rate ran 
up from 26 per thousand to an average of 50 per thousand, 
in some courts in this district exceeding 80 per thousand. 
These revelations aroused civic opinion, and, early in 
1885, ^^® Council appointed its Unhealthy Dwellings 

This Committee first tried the voluntary principle by 
inserting advertisements in the Manchester newspapers 
inviting offers of old and dilapidated houses at reasonable 
prices. Ten blocks of houses were purchased and de- 
molished, but they joined other blocks, the owners of 


, which would not treat with the Corporation, or demanded 
extravagant prices. Beyond giving an overcrowded district 
a little open space, nothing was accordingly done. Two 
areas in Ancoats were then condemned, and the Committee 
prepared improvement schemes, which, being sanctioned 
by the Local Government Board, were carried out with the 
aid of compulsory purchase. On these areas the Corpora- 
tion has just erected two blocks of tenement dwellings, one 
costing about ;^i 8,000, and the other nearly ;^S 0,000. 
The buildings are only three storeys high, and they both 
have large open spaces in the centre. , In one case, it may 
be added, the land cost ;£^98io, or ;^2, 2s. 6d. per square 
yard ; in the other, over ;^9S,ooo, or ;^4, 19s. per square 
yard. Nevertheless, by charging rents from 3s. to 5s. 6d. 
per week for each tenement of two, three, and four rooms, 
the Corporation expects to make good its outlay. Whether 
it is successful in doing this or not, the municipality, 
out of regard for the health of its citizens, has no 
alternative but to vigorously continue the policy thus 
tardily begun. 

The construction of the Ship Canal has greatly added to 
a work of the Manchester Corporation which was already 
sufficiently arduous — that is, the disposal of the sewage. 
It was obvious that precautions would have to be taken 
by Local Authorities between Manchester and Liverpool 
to keep the canal reasonably free from pollution. Man- 
chester first looked to its own duty in the matter three or 
four years ago by pushing forward and extending a pre- 
viously projected scheme for the disposal of the street 
sewage, the chief object of which was to intercept at 
various points the existing pipes and conduits so as to 
carry away the sewage to outfall works and pass it through 


deodorising processes before it entered the river. A figure 
or two will indicate the size of the work. The Corporation 
has 2 1 miles of sewage mains, through which there passes 
on the average fifteen and a half millions of gallons a day. 
The intercepting pipes measure 14 ft. by 10 ft. 6 in., and 
for their construction, together with the other necessary 
work, the sum of half a million was borrowed. 

A word or two must be said about the Sanitary Com- 
mittee's farms, whjch, if successful, will give to the Manches- 
ter Corporation the credit of solving the problem of turning 
to profitable purpose the refuse of a great city. Carrington 
Moss, where the first experiment was begun, is about six 
miles from Manchester, and contains 11 00 acres. It was 
purchased for ;^3 8,000, and about the same amount has 
been spent in reclaiming and developing the estate. It 
originally contained 600 acres of virgin moss, and all this 
has been drained and cultivated and placed under crop. 
In the course of one year 50,000 tons of refuse have been 
sent from Manchester, being conveyed to the estate by the 
Ship Canal and thence by light railway. Chat Moss, 
which has been only recently purchased, is much larger, 
containing 2500 acres. Four hundred acres of this, 
however, is ordinary agricultural land, and with the ex- 
ception of 200 acres of virgin moss the remainder has 
been cultivated. The purchase price was ;^ 13 2, 5 00, and 
it is expected that a further sum of ;^3 0,000 will be spent 
on wharves, road-making, railways, and other permanent 
works. Chat Moss, which is eight miles from the city, is 
bounded for over a mile by the Ship Canal, and a short 
railway has also been specially constructed to facilitate the 
conveyance of sewage. It is anticipated that for the next 
five years 70,000 tons can be sent annually to Chat Moss, 


and that after that 48,000 tons can be disposed of there 
every year- 
Very satisfactory has been the success of the Corpora- 
tion in introducing the electric light into the city. Various 
electric light companies had their eyes on Manchester as 
being likely to a£ford them profitable business; but all their 
applications for " provisional orders " under the Act were 
rejected by the Corporation. This, coupled with the fact 
that the Corporation itself took no active steps in the 
matter, led to some criticism of the system of municipal 
ownership in such a necessary of life as artificial light It 
was alleged that the Corporation did not promptly estab- 
lish a supply of the electric light from the fear that its 
profit on the gas — which amounts to about ;^6o,ooo a 
year — would thereby be endangered. It is now clear, 
however, that the delay arose simply from the desire of the 
Corporation to have the " installation " carried out on the 
best possible principles, so that it would stand the test of 
time, and not have to be superseded at a wasteful expense. 
With this desire, a Committee patiently carried out an 
exhaustive inquiry into the different systems of electric 
lighting and their adaptability to the needs of Manchester, 
and as a result of this exercise of patience it is believed 
that the light provided by the Corporation has a degree of 
excellence and trustworthiness not to be found elsewhere 
outside London. 

The installation, which is on what is known as "the 
five-wire system," has been carried out by means of a loan 
of ;^i5o,ooo. A fine building has been erected in the 
heart of the city, and a plant laid down capable of supply- 
ing the current for 40,000 lamps of eight candle power. 
When the scheme was initiated it was supposed that this 


plant would suffice for the need of consumers for two years; 
but, although the machinery has been working only since 
July 1893, the whole power has been brought into use, 
in the small central district in which, to begin with, the 
Corporation has laid the mains. There is room in the 
building, however,, for a considerable addition to the plant, 
and in course of time district stations will be built in all 
parts of the city. The light is supplied at two scales of 
charges — one for small consumers, and another, sub- 
stantially lower, for large consumers. As this scale works 
out, roughly speaking, a consumer of electric light for 
about 1000 hours in the year would find the cost about 
the same as gas at the present Manchester charge of 2s. 6d. 
per 1000 feet; a smaller consumer would find the cost 
greater, a larger consumer would find it less than gas. 
With the scale of charges it has adopted, the Corporation 
has already found its undertaking a remunerative one. 

For 1893 the cost of the works was ;^SSo9, and the 
revenue from the sale of the current and rental of meters 
was ;^io,i98. After payment of interest on loans and 
bank charges there was a profit of jQuSy, The sum of 
^1376 was carried, however, to the fund for the extinction 
of the debt, leaving a debit balance of ;^209. On the 
whole capital expenditure since the beginning of the 
undertaking there was a credit balance of jC^SS- 

Manchester was the pioneer as regards the collective 
ownership of gas. The old Commissioners of Police 
obtained powers to light the town by the new illuminant in 
1824. The works they then erected were transferred to 
the Corporation in 1843, when the Police Commissioners 
came to an end. It is not known what amount of the rate- 
payers' money had then been invested in the manufacture 



of gas, but in 1857 the valuation showed that the assets 
were nelrly ;^4oo,ooo and the liabilities a little short of 
;^34o,ooo. Between that date and March 1893, a capital 
expenditure of ;;^ 1,942, 865 was incurred, and the Corpora- 
tion has since acquired power to borrow half a million for 
the purpose of increasing the manufacture and the storage 
of gas. The excess of assets over liabilities now amounts 
to about ;^9oo,ooo, and, as already stated, the yearly 
profit averages about ;^6o,ooo. The Corporation supplies 
over 80,000 consumers, and in 1892-3 manufactured 
3636 million cubic feet of gas as compared with 1070 
million in 1865. It is the universal opinion in Manchester 
that the collective ownership of the gas supply has been a 
brilliant success, 

•^ No municipality has taken advantage with more alacrity 
of the legislation of the last few years for the advancement 
of technical education. Six months after the passing of the 
Technical Instruction Act of 1889 ^ Committee was at 
work considering how best its provisions could be applied 
to Manchester. Under its supervision grants to the 
amount of ;^2 5,000 have been made to a number of 
educational institutions in the city, and scholarships founded 
to the value of ;^3i8o per annum. Not content with 
the mere voting 'of money, however, the Corporation has 
taken steps which are likely to secure for Manchester the 
finest municipal technical school in the country. The 
scheme has grown out of the old Whitworth Institute, 
which, three years ago, was handed over to the Corporation 
by the legatees of the late Sir Joseph Whitworth. They 
took this step in the belief that the purpose of the Institute 
would be best served if it were placed under municipal 
management as part of the Corporation's scheme for technical 


instruction. As far as can at present be judged, this belief 
was well founded. Last year the Corporation was directly 
providing instruction in these buildings to 3731 students 
of science and 480 students of art.* It was part of the 
agreement between the Corporation and the governors of 
the Whitworth Institute that as soon as necessary additional 
accommodation should be provided for students, and with 
the legatees of. the late Sir Joseph Whitworth the latter 
engaged to give towards a building fund a sum of about 
;^3 0,000. Before laying their plans for a new school the 
Technical Education Committee, however, appointed from 
theu: number a deputation to visit these municipal insti- 
tutions in some of the principal towns on the Continent. 
After receiving the report of this deputation, the. Corpora-, 
tion resolved that the new school should be of the best. 
Accordingly, the new building which is now being erected 
on a site in Sackville Street, given by the Whitworth 
legatees, is to cost ;£ 100,000, and when completed will 
assuredly be a worthy memorial both of Sir Joseph Whit- 
worth and of the municipal enterprise which distinguishes 
the Cotton City in the closing years of the nineteenth 

In the educational sphere generally, Manchester has 
good reason to be proud of its municipal work. It was 
the first town in the United Kingdom to bring into opera- 

* "The Technical School requires that all its day students must 
possess, on entrance, a sound general education, and it must therefore 
look for its supply of suitably prepared students to the grammar schools 
and other secondary schools, and to the higher grade elementary 
schools. The school also provides evening lectures and laboratory 
and workshop practice for apprentices, journeymen, and foremen in 
the scientific principles underlying their respective trades and in- 
dustries."— ^^^r/ of the Technical Instruction Committee, 


tion Mr Ewart's Public Libraries Act of 1850, and it now 
has thirteen institutions carried on in accordance with the 
principle of the Act. In order that the eager desire of 
the people for more books might be satisfied, and that all 
parts of the city might be equally well served, the Corpora- 
tion, indeed, obtained Parliamentary power to increase the 
library from a penny to not more than twopence in the 
poimd. With the increased resources thus provided, the 
Corporation built three more libraries, and others are in 
course of erection in the outlying districts of Openshaw 
and Gorton. The libraries have one or two distinctive 
features. Instead of excluding boys altogether from the 
libraries, the Committee resolved some years ago to pro- 
vide them with rooms specially for their use. In 1878, it 
was decided to open the libraries on Sunday, and they 
have remained open on that day ever since. The 
Committee now have in their charge some 230,000 
volumes, and the issue of these volumes in the course 
of the year comes to about a million and three-quarters. 
On the average, 5000 volumes are in use every day as 
compared with 460 in 1852 — the first year of the work of 
the Libraries Committee. These figures, of course, refer 
only to the reading of books ; if the statistics of the 
newspaper and magazine rooms are also taken into 
account, the daily average of visitors to these municipal 
buildings is raised to nearly 14,000. 

Manchester's municipal Art Gallery is little more than ten 
years old. But for some sixty years past the city has had 
its Royal Institution, " for the encouragement of fine arts." 
First projected at a public meeting in 1823, and built by 
a public subscription, which amounted to ;^3o,ooo, there 
is not a little significance in the fact that, in 1880, the 


Governors should have offered on their own initiative 
to transfer it to the Corporation without any pecuniary 
consideration/ The offer, with its one condition, that for 
twenty years an annual sum of ;^2ooo should be devoted 
by the Corporation to the purchase of works of art, was 
cordially accepted ; and in 1882, according to the terms of 
an Act of Parliament, the institution passed into the hands 
of the Municipality. Its art treasures have since been 
much augmented, not merely by the annual expenditure 
out of the rates, but also by the gifts of citizens whose 
civic spirit was aroused when the Galleries became the 
property of the city. Manchester's Art Gallery cannot be 
advantageously compared with those of liverpool and 
Birmingham. But, already, the Art Gallery Committee 
have had to contrive to increase the amount of space for 
the pictures, etc., to the detriment of the Gallery's design, 
and before very long it may be confidently expected that 
the Corporation will undertake the erection of another 
building, where the increasing number of its art treasures 
can be more worthily and fittingly housed. In that event, the 
present building would probably be devoted to the annual 
exhibitions, which every year increase in importance and 
popularity. And in considering the encouragement which 
has been given by the Municipality to art in Manchester, 
the mural decoration of its splendid Town Hall must not 
be forgotten. Mr Ford Madox Browne's fine series of 
frescoes serve the double purpose of stimulating the 
citizens' sense of beauty whilst instructing them in the 
history of their city — the twelve panels, with one or two 
exceptions, illustrating the chief episodes in the annals of 
Manchester. The Town Hall itself must astonish many a 
Londoner, unaccustomed as yet to the idea of a great 


municipal organisation, when he beholds it for the first time 
from the centre of Albert Square. The building cost over 
a million of money, took ten years (1868-77) to erect, and 
contains 314 rooms, wherein the daily work is done of the 
many departments of Manchester's municipal actions. 

In providing for the out-door recreation of the people 
Manchester is still rather behindhand. Until 1870 the 
Corporation had not spent a shilling in the purchase of an 
open space, although it was maintaining two small parks 
which had been acquired and laid out by a committee 
acting on behalf of a large number of private subscribers. 
The municipal parks and open spaces do not now represent 
more than 215 acres, Alexandria Park being the largest 
with 60 acres. Taking the population of the municipal 
area at half a million, this is less than half an acre for each 
thousand persons. It must be remembered, however, that 
the population of the municipal area has been increased by 
at least 150,000 as the result of the recent extensions of 
of the City boundaries. The first extension took place in 
1885, and it is since that date that 88 of the 215 acres 
have been acquired by the Corporation. That the 
Corporation is no longer indifferent to the importance of 
its duty in this respect, may be argued from its energetic 
attempt to obtain possession at a reasonable price of 
Boggart Hill Clough, a spot on Blackley Glen, measuring 
some 150 acres, which is well known to Manchester 

How much Manchester is in advance of London may be 
illustrated by its municipal ownership of the markets, in 
which its citizens can obtain their food; the tramways, in 
which they can ride between their work and their homes ; 
and the cemeteries in which their bones are laid to rest. 


The markets cover an area of nearly 40,000 square yards, 
including well-appointed abattoirs. In the Central Market, 
fish, fruit, and vegetables are sold, and the busy scene 
under the broad and lofty glass roof on a Saturday after- 
noon is one not to be easily forgotten. In twenty-seven 
years the Corporation received in market tolls and rents 
more than half a million sterling, and at the present time 
about ;^ 15,000 a year is handed over by the Markets 
Committee to^ the City Treasury. As a consequence of 
the usefulness and popularity of the markets, Manchester 
streets are almost free from costermongers' barrows and 

All the tramways in Manchester are owned by the 
Corporation, several having been transferred to it by local 
boards at the time they were amalgamated with the city. 
The Corporation has received in rents and interest from 
the tramway companies about ;^2 75,000, and out of this 
amount it has been able to transfer nearly ;^6o,ooo in 
relief of rates. Of loans to the amount of about ;^i 60,000 
contracted in respect to tramways, there has been repay- 
ment of nearly ;^35,ooo, and a sinking fund of over 
;^42,ooo has been accumulated. These results have been 
achieved after a liberal expenditure in order to keep the 
lines in good repair, and after ample allowances have been 
made for their depreciation. 

That the administration of municipal affairs has been on 
the whole economical and remunerative, can be at once 
seen by reference to the rates of Manchester. In the year 
1892, the expenditure on municipal and Poor Law pur- 
poses amounted to ;^5 65,505, which represented an 
average rate over the whole city of 4s. S^u^- The signifi- 
cance of this figure will be gauged if it is compared with 


the amount of the rate levied in most of the London 
parishes, even if we do not take into account the greater 
services rendered by the municipality to the ratepayers. 
It is to be noted, however, that in the last few years the 
Manchester rates have undergone considerable increase. 
Ten years ago they averaged only about 3s. in the pound, in 
1888 only 3s. sd,, and in 1891 only 4s. The expenditure 
in this period has risen from about ;£3 30,000 per annum. 
My readers will understand from previous pages the causes 
of this increase. 

The debt of the Corporation has now reached the very 
large total of ;^i 3,880,000. Nearly a third of this 
amount has of course been incurred for the purpose of 
advancing again to the Manchester Ship Canal Company, 
and on the interest account there is now a balance in 
favour of the Corporation of nearly ;^8o,ooo. On the 
^ggi'egate balance-sheet of the Corporation at the end of 
the last financial year the assets were shown to amount to 
about seventeen millions and a half sterling, and the 
liabilities to fourteen millions and a half sterling, leaving 
a surplus of ;^2,96o,885. It is to be observed that 
about ;^2,3oo,ooo of this sum is made up of the balances 
on three remunerative undertakings of the Corporation — 
viz., the waterworks, the gasworks, and the markets. On 
the first there is a balance on the capital account of about 
;^99S,ooo, on the second of ;^878,ooo, and on the third 
of ;^42 3,000. 

I have spoken of the average rate ; as a matter of fact, 
there are still seven different rates levied over the municipal 
area, varying in 1892 from ss: lod. in the parish of 
Beswick to 4s. in the township of Openshaw. In the 
parish of Manchester, which contains a population of about 


150,000, the rate was ss. in the pound, which is lower 
than that levied in five-sixths of the London parishes. 
Manchester has secured, as I have already indicated, 
such extensions of the municipal boundaries as make 
them fairly co-terminous with the benefits of its municipal 
government. But to some of the townships incorporated 
in 1885 and 1890, exemption was given from the School 
Board rate till such time as they should require Board 
Schools to be built. As regards three of the townships 
incorporated in 1890, it was found necessary, in order to 
obtain their consent, to grant differential rating for ten 
years. As the result of these extensions, the rateable 
value of Manchester has been increased from about 
;^67o,ooo to nearly ;^2,9oo,ooo, the acreage from 4293 
to 12,911, and the population from 220,000, to over 
half a million. Although a good deal of opposition, on 
the part of the local boards and their constituents, had 
to be overcome, the amalgamation has given complete 
satisfaction to the people whose civic welfare the Cor- 
poration has taken into its keeping. "We desire to 
gratefully acknowledge," said the ratepayers of one of 
these districts on the occasion of the opening of a new 
park, "the beneficial work of the Council in our district 
since the amalgamation, in regard to the great improve- 
ment in our streets, the better lighting of the district, 
the greater efficiency in the police supervision, and in 
particular the providing of a public Free Library." 


Antiquity of its Municipal Government — Some Reason to be grateful 
to its Old Corporation — Liverpool's Heritage from Past Neglect 
— What the Municipality is doing to recover Arrears — Expendi- 
ture of Half a million on Public Parks — The First Municipal 
Baths and Wash-houses — Sea- water Swimming Baths — Liver- 
pool's Markets — The Beginning of a Sanitary Crusade — A 
Municipal Water Supply its First Result — Tapping a Welsh 
Lake — Private Owner^p of the Gas Supply and its Cost— Hie 
Corporation and the Slums — Its Difficulties in destroying them 
— Municipal "Models" — ^Are they Popular? — A Case of too 
little Faith in Municipal Action — ^A Declining Death-Rate and 
its Significant Disparities — The "New Spirit" in Municipal 
Work for Education — ^A Splendid Group of Municipal Buildings 
— Board Schools as Reading-Rooms— Making the Library and 
Museum more attractive — Municipal Lectures — The Walker 
Art Gallery and its History — Liverpool's use of the " Liquor 
Money " — The Nautical College the latest Municipal Institution 
— Smallness of the Corporation's Debt — The Rates satisfactory, 
except in their Variation — Extension of the Municipal Bound- 
aries—Its Importance to Liverpool's Municipal Future. 

Liverpool can be compared with the City of London 
in the antiquity of its municipal government. Its original 
charter of incorporation was granted by King John, and 
bears date August 28, 1207. On festive occasions the 
Lord Mayor can decorate his table with corporate plate 
of medieval manufacture, and part of his regalia was 
worn by predecessors early in the seventeenth century. 
When the Commissioners, whose work led to the passing 
of the Municipal Corporations Act, visited Liverpool in 


1834, they found it — unlike Birmingham and several 
other large towns — in the full possession of municipal 
powers. It had a mayor and two bailiffs, elected by the 
freemen, and forty-one councillors. The councillors were 
not chosen by popular election, but each vacancy was 
filled up by the remaining members of the Council. 
Freedom of the town was obtained by birth, by servitude, 
or by gift of the Council, and was so little diflfused, even 
among the higher class, that, according to evidence given 
in the inquiry by the Commissioners, only seven out of 
two hundred medical men then practising at Liverpool 
had civic rights. 

It may well be supposed that, in view of this, the 
Liverpool of to-day gains little from the antiquity of its 
municipal government. In one important 'respect, how- 
ever, the city has cause to be grateful to its Mayor and 
Corporation of the Middle Ages; to their wise policy 
Liverpool owes its valuable corporate estate, by means 
of which practically all its fine public buildings have 
been erected free of expense to the ratepayers. About 
the middle of the seventeenth century the Corporation 
purchased the feudal rights of Sir William Molyneux, and 
commuted, for a lump sum, the ground rents payable to 
the Duchy of Lancaster. 

In other ways, too, towards the end of its reign the 
Corporation did something to anticipate the beneficent 
activity of modern municipalities. In 1820 it built St 
John's Market for the accommodation of retail dealers, 
whose stalls and booths had become a serious obstruction 
to the growing traffic of the town; in 1828 it constructed 
the St George's Baths on the banks of the Mersey. The 
possibilities of municipal action thus suggested were 


probably not lost on the town. At the first election of 
the reformed Corporation 59 of the 64 members were 
Liberals, or, as they would now be called. Progressives. 
The impulse soon exhausted itself, however. In 1841 the 
traditional Toryism of Liverpool asserted itself, and in only 
three of the sixteen wards were its opponents successful.* 

Nor was the full eflfect of the reform — ^the enlargement 
of the municipal franchise as well as of the municipal 
area — felt in the better government of the city for some 
years later. Between 1700 and i8oo the population grew 
from about 6000 to nearly 80,000; in 1831 it was 
165,000, and in twenty years it doubled itself. In both 
periods the enormous increase went on with that reckless 
disregard for the value of light and air and space which 
has made Liverpool, with ninety-nine people to the acre, 
the most densely populated city in the kingdom. Until 
1856 the Corporation had made no public park, and as 
late as 1857 its citizens were supplied by a private com- 
pany with water only twice or thrice a week. In covering 
the land with bricks and mortar the builders were allowed 
to destroy every vestige of vegetation — every leaf of a tree 
and every blade of grass — with the result that the dingy 
monotony of the older parts of Liverpool has but very 
few parallels in the Metropolis itself. In this period, 
moreover, some 15,000 dwellings came into existence 
which, owing to the way they were built, could never 
have been fit for human habitation. 

What has been done and what is being done on the 
part of the Corporation to make ^good these heavy arrears 

* By this I must not be understood to imply that at the present time 
— or for many years past — Conservatism in Liverpool has been iden- 
tical with antagonism to all municipal progress. 


of past neglect ? The answer can be but a qualified one : 
in some respects much, in others little. Let us first look 
at the brighter side of the picture. On a visit to Liver- 
pool nothing fn the way of municipal activity so much 
impresses one as the number and size of the public 
parks. Including several smaller recreation places, they 
contain about eight hundred acres. But, alas ! of neces- 
sity, all the larger parks are a considerable distance from 
the central part of the city. 

Within the city boundaries up to a few years ago was 
only to be found Wavertree Park, containing, with the 
Botanic Gardens, an area of about 43 acres; but of 
late years great eflforts have been made to provide open 
spaces more convenient for the greater mass of the people. 
Kensington Gardens, in the east, containing about i8j 
acres; Whitby Gardens, in Everton, containing about 
2f acres ; Mount Vernon Green, in West Derby, contain- 
ing I acre, are all of recent addition. There are also 
ten open spaces, formerly burial-grounds, which have 
been laid out in an attractive form as public gardens. 
Including three public squares, 22 acres of open space 
in the closely-built city have thus been secured. It is 
to be observed, too, that the Municipality had to learn 
its duty in this matter from the example of a private 
citizen, the late Richard Vaughan Yates. Mr Yates 
gave Liverpool its first park, which he named Prince's 
Park, in 1843. Fifteen years later the Corporation pur- 
chased and laid out Wavertree Park and Botanic Garden. 
Between 1864 and 1872 four parks were provided by 
the Corporation : Stanley Park (93 acres) on the north, 
Newsham Park (114 acres) and Shiel Park (15 acres) on 
the north-east, and Sefton Park (270 acres) on the south- 


it is estimated that only ;£^i 43,000 now remains unpaid, 
and accordingly this is all that the Corporation funds have 
been credited with as against the new Tramways Depart- 
ment. Prudence is mingled with enterprise, however, and 
the Tramways Committee have decided that until they 
know their business better it would be impolitic to make 
experiments with electric or cable traction. Nor have 
they underrated the competition of the omnibuses intro- 
duced for the first time into all the principal streets of 
Glasgow by the old Tramways Co mpany. But even if 
the people were not determined tofheartil ^upport ) their 
own municipal undertaking it is inconceivable that omni- 
buses should prove at this time of day successful rivals to 
tramcars, and so far no attempt has been made to obtain 
passengers for them by lower fares. It may be that 
Glasgow will prove itself able to support both tramcars and 
omnibuses, as London does ; but if either is driven from 
the streets, it must be the Company not the Corporation. 

So far Glasgow's municipality has become most widely 
known for its model lodging-houses. The main features of 
these institutions can be seen in the Drury Lane buildings 
of the London County Council, and comparing them with 
the "doss houses" which were the outcome of private 
enterprise in Glasgow and other cities, it is obvious that a 
great gain has been made by municipal action in comfort 
and decency. There are now seven municipal lodging- 
houses in Glasgow (of which one is for women), accom- 
modating in all over 2000 people, and another is projected, 
which, under the name of the Family Home, is to provide 
a night's shelter to the houseless father, mother and 
children. The first lodging-house was built in 1871, and 
since that date nearly ;£'90,ooo have been spent upon them. 


But every year the excess of revenue over expenditure has 
in the aggregate given a good return upon the money 
invested — that is to say, from four guineas to five guineas 
per cent. Thus, at no cost to the citizens, the Corporation 
has been able to bring about an improvement in the homes 
of the very poor, which has in course of time extended to 
all the lodging-houses of the city. The popularity of the 
municipal lodging-houses renders them thus remunerative 
at charges of 3jd. and 4jd. per night, for as a rule very 
few beds are unoccupied. Some people go to them night 
afteri night as nowhere else can they obtain quarters as 
good at the price. The matron at the females' house told 
me of one pathetic case in which an old woman, who, 
whenever she was able, used to pay for her bed a number 
of nights in advance. One day she fell ill and died. 
The money paid in advance for her bed lasted until the 
very day of her death. She had been an occupant of the 
lodging-house ever since it was opened over twenty years 

The lodging-houses are only part of a large scheme, 
projected by the Corporation in 1865, for improving the 
sanitary condition of the city. Its object was to let light, 
air and sunshine into an area of courts and alleys in which 
75,000 people were crowded. In the first thirty years of 
this century the population of Glasgow trebled itself, and 
the central districts, which were originally too closely built 
upon, became terribly congested. As a consequence, the 
Royal Commission of 1844, on the health of populous 
towns, reported that the death-rate in Glasgow was 40 per 
thousand, and that typhus fever never left the city. And 
at the time the evil was a growing one; in 1821 the 
deaths per year in Glasgow were one in thirty-six, in 1838 


it was one in twenty-six. For some time the Corporation 
were appalled by the magnitude of the evil with which 
they had to deal. At length it was resolved to reconstruct 
the entire district of High Street, Saltmarket, Gallowgate, 
and Trongate. For this great purpose an Improvement 
Act was obtained authorising the imposition of a new rate, 
at 6d. in the pound for the first five years, and 3d. in the 
pound for the second five years. But the victory of the 
sanitarians was strenuously contested by a section of the 
ratepayers who were unable to perceive its true economic 
significance, and its . principal author was defeated at the 
next municipal elections. The Corporation has since 
persevered with the scheme notwithstanding an almost 
unceasing fire of sharp criticism from these citizens of 
little faith, and at length the policy of its supporters is being 
.fully justified from the financial point of view, as it always 
was from that of the health of the city. According to the 
balance-sheet of the Trust up to the 31st May 1894, the 
total expenditure had been about two millions sterling, the 
liabilities amounted tO;^i,o39,746, the deficiency in assets 
being ;^ 1 36, 1 48. If this amount is added to that raised 
from the rates since 1866 — in round numbers ;£5 90,000 
— it will be that the cost of the scheme has been so far 
rather less than three quarters of a million sterling. For 
this sum about 100,000 square yards of slum property 
have been swept away, and in its place healthy dwellings 
have been built ; the city has also gained a large public 
park. It is also to be observed that a year or so ago the 
accounts of the Trust began to show a balance on the right 
side. In 1893-94 a balance of over ;^6ooo was carried to 
the Excess Liability Account, and since 1891 this excess 
has been reduced from ;£'i55,855 to the present figure. 


The cost of the improvement scheme has up to the 
present been larger than it would have been in consequence 
of the severe depression from which the Glasgow real 
estate market suflfered during the ten years 1880-90. As 
a consequence, a good deal of the ground which had been 
cleared continued vacant for several years. This circum- 
stance was doubtless beneficial to the health of the district, 
but it produced the most gloomy predictions of the 
financial grief to which the policy of the Corporation was 
tending. On the other hand, the financial success which 
has attended the municipal ownership of both lodging- 
houses and tenement houses has been of some assistance 
in falsifying such predictions. I am not in a position to 
explain so clearly the state of the case in regard to the 
tenement houses ; but the figures I give go far to show that 
they have been hardly less remunerative than the lodging- 
houses. Roughly speaking, the cost of eight blocks of 
tenement houses has been about ;^3o,ooo ; whilst the 
income for the last financial year was a little over ;;^4ooo 
and the expenses under ;^iooo. These tenement houses 
include a number of shops. and flats of one, two, three, 
four and five rooms. They have been excellently built, 
and are liberally provided with open space. For the most 
part they are inhabited by the working class, the rents 
ranging from jC'j to ^£2$ a year according to the number 
of rooms. 

At the present time the gospel of sanitation, out of 
which the great improvement scheme arose, is being most 
vigorously practised in Glasgow in respect to the purifica- 
tion of the river. This long-deferred, much discussed 
project has at length been well begun by the construction 
of works at Dalmarnock — at a cost, up to the present, of 


nearly ^^ 100,000 — where what is said to be a most 
efficient system of filtration, etc., has been adopted. The 
visitor to these works is presented, before leaving, with a 
glass of seemingly pure water — liquid extracted from the 
raw sewage he had seen on beginning his inspection. It 
is the aim of the Corporation to have the whole sewage of 
the city thus effectively dealt with before it passes into the 
Clyde, so that that noble river may be restored to some- 
thing like its original purity, and the Glasgow citizen will 
be able to begin his pleasure trip in rowjng boat or steam- 
ship at the Broomielaw. ^ 

The Municipality would doubtless have taken in hand 
the purification of the river long since if it had not as early 
as 1853 resolved on the abandonment of the Clyde as the 
source of the water supply of Glasgow. In taking this 
step and at the same time entering upon a scheme for 
bringing to Glasgow — 35 miles distant — ^the water of 
Loch KLatrine, the Corporation set the example which 
Liverpool, Manchester, and Birmingham liave since 
followed. It is true that, compared with the distance of 
Manchester from Thirlmere, or Liverpool from Vymwy, the 
loch is quite near Glasgow. But, forty years ago, the 
adoption of a scheme for buying out the two Glasgow 
water companies and obtaining an independent supply 
from the clouds and the mountains, at an estimated cost 
of a million and a half in less than ten years, implied an 
amount of municipal enterprise which London has never 

Glasgow is said by experts to have the purest water 
supply in the Kingdom. At the same time it is the 
cheapest, and also the most plentiful. The Glasgow water 
rate is now only 6d. in the pound, and it is estimated that 

GLASGOW. > 73 

about 800,000 people in and around the city have a 
supply for domestic purposes of 33 gallons per day. At 
the time the Corporation took the water supply into its own 
hands the rate was is. 2d. in the pound. On the other 
hand, after meeting all its expenses and obligations, includ- 
ing the payment of 4^ and 6 per cent, annuities on half a 
million stock to the shareholders of the old companies, 
the Water Commissioners have been able every year to 
make a substantial profit. In 1893-94 the revenue was 
-£^77*950 and the expenditure ;£i35,o6i. In 1890-91 
the balance of receipts over exp'enses was over ;^43,ooo 
and in 1889-90 it exceeded ;^S 0,000. The capital expendi- 
ture on the waterworks now exceeds three million sterling 
and the sinking fund ;^7 30,000. It should be added 
that Loch Katrine is practically inexhaustible, and that an 
increase in the supply in proportion to an increase in the 
consumption will be mainly a question ^of expenditure on 
additional aqueducts, etc. 

It was not until 1875 that the Corporation decided to 
make use of its fine water supply in the provision of public 
baths and wash-houses. It now has five of these institutions, 
excellently built and furnished at a cost of about ;^i 00,000. 
For many years they were carried on at a loss of two, three 
and four thousand pounds per annum, but the deficit has now 
been reduced to about a thousand. The number of bath- 
tickets in the course of 1890-91 (the last year for which I 
could obtain the figures) was slightly more than half a million, 
which, considering the population of the city, indicates that 
Glasgow is still deficient in facilities for- gaining the virtue 
of cleanliness and the healthfulness of the swimming art. 
The municipal laundries have been rapidly growing in 
popularity. In five years the number of tickets issued more 


than doubled, and it was estimated that in 1890-91 the 
linen of 3000 families was washed there. It is worth notice 
that in Glasgow the municipality itself undertakes the work 
of the laundry; during 1893-94 it received ;^i392 for 
linen which had been washed by attendants at the wash- 
houses. So far, I believe, the Baths and Wash-houses 
Committee regard the work they have done as in its nature 
experimental. They now have under consideration such a 
wide extension of it as will give to all the people of Glasgow 
the same facilities for bathing their bodies and washing their 
clothes as are now enjoyed by those who reside in the 
immediate vicinity of the existing establishments. One 
scheme has been suggested of a remarkably comprehensive 
character. It is proposed that in the rear of every street of 
houses a small bathing and washing establishment should 
be erected, fitted with the same facilities as the large build- 
ings now existing, the same charge being made for their 
use. Mr William Thompson, the General Superintendent 
of this department of Glasgow's municipal work, believes 
— and the belief is based on a number of carefully collated 
facts and figures — that such a scheme would prove not only 
of the highest benefit to the health and welfare of the people, 
but would also become financially self-supporting. If such 
a scheme comes within the range of the practical municipal 
politics of Glasgow, it probably could be supplemented at 
comparatively little additional cost by a public supply of 
hot water. 

That the Municipality of Glasgow is capable of 
taking so broad and comprehensive a view of an im- 
portant part of its work may be argued from its generous 
policy as regards open spaces. They contain in all 700 
acres, and according to the census of 1891 the popula- 


tion of the municipal area was 565,000 ; thus every 
800 of the population is provided with an acre of space for 
recreation. Even if the population which was added to the 
city in November of that year by the extension of its bound- 
aries be also taken into account, Glasgow with a population 
of 656,000 still takes precedence in this matter, even of 
Birmingham, which has an acre of open space for every 
1,300 of its population. Last year the maintenance of the 
parks, etc., cost ;^34,ooo, and ;^i68o was spent in pro- 
viding them with music on the summer evenings. The 
first Sunday in August they were visited by over 200,000 
people ; while the attendance at 244 band performances 
numbered nearly three quarters of a million. Of the various 
open spaces, the largest are Glasgow Green with 136 acres, 
and the Queen's Park with 90 acres. The most recent 
acquisition is a winter garden at Kelvingrove, which is a 
botanical storehouse, and at the same time is admirably 
adapted for musical performances. 

The Corporation is also the owner/ ^of the principal 
halls in the City. The history of St Andrew's Halls is 
significant as to the superiority of municipal ownership 
over private enterprise in these undertakings. This 
splendid building in the west end of Glasgow was origin- 
ally erected a few years ago by a company, which was 
never able to pay its way. The halls were taken over by 
the Corporation at a cost of over ;^4o,ooo about four 
years ago ; and the financial result is already satisfactory. 
Altogether, the Corporation is the owner of eight public 
buildings of this character, and in respect to each the 
annual accounts show a substantial balance on the right 
side. In two of the largest halls concerts are given 
every Saturday during the winter under municipal 


auspices; the prices of admission are only 3d. and 
id. But although artistes of good professional posi- 
tion are engaged, the concerts are carried on without 
loss to the municipal exchequer.* 

The Glasgow Art Gallery owes its inception to the 
enthusiasm of a private citizen, but its purchase and 
maintenance have been at the cost of the Municipality. 
Mr M'Lellan, a prosperous coach-builder, with a fine 
taste in art, devoted his leisure and a considerable part 
of his fortune to a collection of pictures " of the various 
schools of painting in Italy, Germany, Spain, the Low 
Countries and France, since the revival of art in the 
fifteenth century." At the time of his death in 1854 
the collection numbered 233 works; and, according to 
the terms of his will the whole of these, together with 
the extensive building in Sauchiehall Street in which they 
were stored, was bequeathed to the Corporation. But 
unfortunately Mr M'Lellan's business aflfairs were found 
to be in an unsatisfactory state, and the trustees found 
it impossible to carry out the terms of the will. Negotia- 

* A more noteworthy example of municipal concerts is to be found 
at Newcastle-on-Tyne. They are under the management of a special 
Committee of the Council, and are given in the Town Hall every 
Saturday evening during the winter months. They were started in 
1882, and each concert has been attended on the average by 1670 
people, the accommodation of the Town Hall being lycxx Although 
only 3d. is charged for half the seats and only 6d. for the other half, 
the Committee have been able to engage professional artistes of the 
status of Signor Foli and Mr Carrodus, and Mesdames Georgina Bums, 
Marie Roze and Clara Samuel. The aggregate receipts for the eleven 
years have amounted to about ;£'9000 and the expenses to about ;f8ooo. 
The balance has been used to provide part of the cost of band perform- 
ances in the parks during the summer. It should be added that the 
inception of the idea and its successful achievement is chiefly due to an 
enthusiastic lover of hiusic on the Council — Mr Barker Ellis. 


tions were entered into with the Council, and as the 
result the pictures and their storehouse were purchased 
for the city at the price of ;^44,5oo — ^29,500 being given 
for the building and ;^ 15,000 for its contents. The 
number of works, excluding sculpture, has since been 
increased by gift and purchase to about 600, and in its 
value and representative character the collection attracts the 
admiration of every artist who sees it. But it has never 
yet been adequately exhibited, the building in which it 
is housed being unworthy of, and unsuitable to, its 
purpose. The expenditure of ;£ 15,000 on pictures 
aroused at the outset considerable outcry, which the 
Council endeavoured to appease by profitably letting a 
part of the building. Part of the building being used 
for trade purposes, there was considerable danger of fire ; 
and having been warned by one or two small outbreaks, 
the Parks Committee, in whom the management of the 
Art Gallery and the Museum is vested, were obliged by 
a feeling of prudence to discontinue the loan exhibitions 
which, in other provincial cities, have been of so much 
educational value. Until 1878 the Corporation had no 
statutory power to engage in additional expenditure on 
the Art Gallery or the Museum ; and when an extension 
of the latter became urgent, the money was raised by 
the Lord Provost appealing for donations from the 
citizens. In the meantime, the citizens had learned by 
visiting them to appreciate the value of both institutions. 
The sum of ;^75,ooo was obtained for the Museum, 
which occupies an attractive although rather small 
building in Kelvingrove Park, and at the present time 
there is a growing feeling in Glasgow that neither the 
Art Gallery nor the Museum is quite worthy of the city 


and its municipal prestige. A new Art Gallery is, indeed, 
already building at Kelvingrove — a splendid structut-e, 
costing ;^ 300,000, the nucleus of which sum was 
derived from the surplus on the Glasgow Exhibition of 

The latest municipal undertaking is the establishment 
of a People's Palace similar to that which sprung up in the 
East End of Lx)ndon in response to the pleasant fancy of 
Mr Besant. The Palace is to be built on Glasgow Green 
— the great place of recreation for the East End of the 
City on the Clyde — ^at an estimated cost of ;^2o,ooo. 
Music in a Winter Garden is to be one of the main 
features of this new municipal effort to minister to the 
pleasure of the people. 

In strange contrast to its municipal equipment in other 
respects is Glasgow's lack of Free Libraries. On three 
different occasions the majority of the citizens have re- 
fused to put the Public Libraries Acts into force. There 
are, it is true, three excellent Reference Libraries to which 
the public have free access, but these have come into 
existence through private benevolence, and only one is 
under the management of the Corporation. These in- 
stitutions, moreover, are all situated in one street in' 
the centre of the city. Until the people in all parts can 
take books from public storehouses and read them in 
their own homes, the municipal life of Glasgow, as com- 
pared with all the other provincial cities, will be subject 
to one serious reproach. 

Before coming to consider the cost in hard cash of 
the municipal work of Glasgow, attention must be given 
to the markets and the gas supply, which, with the watdr 
undertaking, are a source of profit to the city. The net 


revenue derived from these three sources, as stated in 
the accounts for 1893, ^^V ^^ set down as follows : — 

Water Supply, . . . ;^42,ooo 

Gas „ ... 29,500 

Markets, . . . . 3,300 

Total . ;^74,8oo 

The Gas Supply has been in the hands of the Cor- 
poration since 1869, in which time it has been increased 
from 5,000,000 to 25,000,000 cubic feet per day. When 
the Gas Company was bought out the price was 4s. yd. 
per thousand feet; for 1893-4 it was 2s. 6d. The Cor- 
poration paid a little over half a million sterling for the 
Company's property, annuities being payable on ;;^4 15,000. 
The Corporation has since spent about ;^6oo,ooo in 
extending the works and improving the supply. Three 
years ago, having in view the extension of the city 
boundaries, the Corporation purchased for ;£202,5oo 
the works of the Partick, Hillhead, and Maryhill Gas 
Company, which, having to compete with the municipal 
supply over a large part of its area, was unable to earn 
dividends that were satisfactory to its shareholders. 

Having regard to its experience with the gas, the 
Corporation was resolved from the first to take into its 
own hands the supply of electric light. But, on the 
advice of Lord Kelvin, operations were deferred for 
several years, and it was not until March 1892 that the 
Gas Committee were able to supply consumers in the 
central part of the City with the new illuminant. In 
the first yearns accounts there was a deficit of ;^i,773, 
a result to be easily explained by the fact that during 


a greater part of the year the capital expenditure was 
necessarily unproductive of revenue, and in the mean- 
time interest had to be paid "on a loan of ;^ioo,ooo. 
The whole of the machinery and plant has since been 
brought into use as soon as completed, and the deficit 
is not likely to occur again.* 

The municipal ownership of the markets dates from 
a time previous to the Municipal Corporations Acts. 
There are markets for cattle, dead meat, fish, fruit, and 
vegetables, butter, cheese, and provisions, old clothes, 
and birds and dogs, besides abattoirs of the best type, 
and two extensive wharves on the Clyde for the landing 
of American and other foreign cattle. It is largely owing 
to the measures taken by the Municipality for its develop- 
ment that Glasgow has obtained such a big share in the 
foreign cattle trade. The wharves were opened in 1879, 
and in the first year some 10,000 animals were received 
there; in 1891 the number had grown to 80,000. These 
establishments, together with cattle, meat, and fish markets, 
are under the control of a Markets Committee. The other 
markets are managed, for some reason or other, by what 
is known as the Bazaar Committee: This Committee, so- 
called after the name of the fruit and vegetable market, 
has also the control, it is of interest to learn, of the 
municipal halls, and the municipal concerts, as well as 
the street clocks and the steeples and clocks and bells 
of fourteen churches. It illustrates the wide-reaching 
character of municipal work in the present day that 
duties so various should be entrusted to one Committee. 

* According to the balance sheet. May 31st, 1894, the liabilities in 
respect to the electric light were ;f 127,857, and the assets ^^129,871— 
a surplus of ;f 2014. 


The Corporation of Glasgow has been exceptionally 
active in enforcing Sir John Lubbock's Shop Hours Acts. 
Eight sub-inspectors have been appointed to carry out the 
Acts under the direction of the chief Sanitary Inspector, 
and the results of their labour have considerable interest. 
In the six months ending on August i8, 1894, 7503 visits 
to shops were made by the inspectors, and 16,000 notice 
cards containing the main provisions of the law were 
distributed among shop-keepers. In 376 cases there was 
clear evidence that young people under 18 years of age 
were employed for more than 74 hours per week but in 
only 1 3 was it necessary to institute prosecutions ; in 
all other cases the inspector's warnings sufficed to secure 
compliance with the law. By this vigorous enforcement 
of a humane piece of legislation the Municipality has been 
able to accomplish incalculable good at a very small cost. 

The municipal finance of Glasgow presents several 
features of exceptional interest. Until 1845 ^^^ Corpora- 
tion levied no rate. Its revenue was wholly derived 
from dues imposed on all articles of food and drink 
brought into the city. This revenue was usually in excess 
of the revenue, and the surplus year by year was invested*^^*'*^'** 
in real estate in the city. Thus was created the municipal **'"*'^ 
property which is known locally as the Common Good. 
It was with the income of the Common Good, which in 
fifty years has more than doubled, that the Corporation 
brought water from Loch Katrine and established its 
tramway service. In 1845 the Common Good produced 
an income of a little more than ;£i 5,000, now it has 
risen to ;£3S,ooo; and whereas the free assets of the 
Corporation amounted to ;^i73,783 in 1851, they 
amounted in 1891 to ;£si8,726. 



Then, the rates now levied in Glasgow are practically 
equal all over the city, and are payable partly by the land- 
lords as well as by the occupiers of houses. Houses 
of a rental exceeding ;£io, moreover, are charged with a 
higher rate than houses of a lower rental. In 1 891-2, for 
example, the municipal rates imposed on the higher rented 
houses (the diflference between parishes did not reach 
id. in the pound) amounted to about half a crown in the 
pound, but of this from 5d. to 6d. in the pound was payable 
by the owners. On rents between ^£4 and ;£"io the 
rates amounted to about is. lod., and of this about 6d. was 
also payable by the owners. The rates on houses of the 
annual value of ^£4 and under — it should be remembered, 
of course, that in Glasgow what in London would be 
termed " flats " or "tenements" are called " houses " — which 
were only about is. 2d. in the pound in that year, are entirely 
payable by the owners. The number of houses of the 
first class was returned as 36,793 ; of the second, 78,605 ; 
and of the third, 8443. For 1893-94 the "high rate" 
payable by the tenant was about 2s. 3d. in the pound, and the 
" low rate " is. 7d. in the pound. If to such rates are added 
the School Board rate of 7jd. in the pound and the Poor 
Rate of from 8d. to i od., according to the different parishes, 
it will be seen that the local burdens of Glasgow are 
light compared with those which have to be borne by the 
great majority of London ratepayers, who — apart from free 
libraries, perhaps, — receive so much less in return. The 
truth is that, thanks to the increasing revenue from the 
Common Good and the profits from the gasworks, the 
waterworks, the tramways and the markets, the recent 
development of municipal work in Glasgow has cost the 
ratepayers practically nothing. In 1870-71, for example. 


the maximum rate was 2s. 2d. and the minimum rate 
IS. 6d. in the pound.* 

On the other hand, the widening of the sphere of civic 
activity has clearly had the best results in extending the 
period and the pleasure of the lives of the citizens. In 
proof of the improvement which has been wrought even 
during the last twenty years in the health of the city, I 
cannot do better than quote a tabular statement made by 
Mr James Nichol, the City Chamberlain, and the compiler 
of The Statistics of Glasgow : — 

In the decade 1871-80, with a population 
averaging 494,574, the deaths per 
annum were ..... 1 41303 

And in the last decade 1881-90, when the 
population averaged 537,000, the 
yearly number of deaths was . . 13,132 

Giving a diminution per annum to the 

credit of last decade of . . . 1 1 7 1 

Add for the difference of population . 1 00 

And we have an annual saving in lives of 1271 

* In 1874-75 the householder paid, including domestic water supply, 
on rentals of ;^io and over, 3s. o|d. per £\ in 1894-95 he pays only 
2s. Sjd. — a reduction of sgd. per £. In 1874-75, on rentals under 
;£io, the householder paid 2s. 3fd., against, for the present year, only 
2s. i/jd.— a reduction of 2j|d. per £, The owners* rate however, 
shows an increase, having been in 1874-75 Si^* per;f, while now it is 
7jd., an increase of 4jd. per £, Dealing with the rate in cumulo 
(occupier and owner combined) a fractional increase appears — it having 
been in the former year 3s. 4d. per £^ as against 3s. 4fd. for the 
current year for houses £,\o and over; and for rentals under £\o^ 
2s. 7|d. and 2s. 9Ad. in the two years respectively. — Statement by the 
Lord Provost (Mr James Bell) at a Meeting of the Council, December 
6, 1894. 


As r^ards the beneficial influence which the Muni- 
cipality has been able to exercise over the amenities of 
every-day life by means of parks and gardens, bands and 
concerts, pictures and books, and the supply of pure water, 
wholesome food, light and air, it was the recognition of this 
which, after much controversy over details, ultimately 
induced independent burghs to throw in their lot with 
the city of which in the course of time they had come to 
form a part The last extension of the city's boundaries 
took place in 1891, when the population was increased 
from 565,000 to 656,000, and Glasgow became the second 
city in the empire. Govan, with a population of over 
61,000, according to the last census, Partick, with 36,000, 
and Kinning Park, with nearly 14,000, still hold aloof; but 
the time is not far distant when their populations must go 
to swell the number of Glasgow's citizens and strengthen 
the vigour of its municipal life. 


The Model Municipality of its Size— What it has done in Forty Years 
— Endeavours to Defeat and Delay the Incorporation of the 
Town— Its Municipal Spirit at first of slow Growth — ^The Fight 
for the Water Monopoly — Large Expenditure in Increasing and 
Improving the Supply — Municipalising the Gasworks — Re- 
markable Success of the Corporation with the Electric Light — 
The Corporation and the Tramways— Public Markets and Street 
Improvements — Remodelling the Central Part of Bradford — 
.The Question of " Betterment " — Leading Cases in Bradford — 
Abolition of the Slums — The Sanitary Policy of the Corporation 
weakened by the Opposition of " Vested Interests " — Its Action 
against the smoke evil— Baths and Wash-houses carried on at 
a Loss — Excellently provided with Parks — The Municipal 
Convalescent Home — The " Mayors* Library " — Municipal 
Books and Pictures — The Municipality and the Technical 
Collie — The Conditioning House — Higher Rates and the 
Return for them — Personal Service and Civic Patriotism — ^The 
Municipal Expenditure— The Re-adjustment of its Burden. 

Ninth on the list of provincial, towns according to the 
census of 1891, Bradford must assuredly be included in 
the first half dozen by virtue of the vigour and success of 
its municipal policy. With a population of 223,388 — 
I am giving the figures for 1894 — and a rateable value 
of ;£i,o7i,6i7, Bradford has been able to accomplish 
more in the domain of municipal statesmanship than 
several cities having greater numbers and larger resources. 
It may be described as the model municipality of its 




The Bradford Corporation is the owner of all the 
monopolies upon which, since its creation, the London 
County Council has been casting its justly envious eyes. 
It has owned the water supply since 1 854 and the gas supply 
since 1869; the markets became municipal property in 
1865 ; the Corporation, has retained exclusive control 
over the roads by making its own tramways ; and, in 
accordance with the same principle, it has more recently 
undertaken the supply of electric light. The Baths and 
Washhouse Act was put into force as early as 1864, and 
seven years later the Public Libraries Act. Every part of 
the town has a public park, it has a good picture gallery, 
and a Technical College which, considered one of the 
finest in the kingdom, is largely supported out of munici- 
pal funds. Handsome streets have been constructed in 
the place of a myriad of courts and alleys, and insanitary 
house-property has been reduced almost to a minimum. 
A costly system of sewage has been carried out, thanks 
to which Bradford Beck is one of the purest of streams 
flowing through a large town. The death-rate has been 
reduced in twenty years from 27 to 17 per thousand, 
representing the saving of over 2000 lives every year. 
And under the rule of its Corporation, Bradford has 
become what it is to-day from being in 1844, according 
to the testimony of the Health of Town Commissioners, 
" the dirtiest, filthiest, and worst regulated town in the 

When this severe judgment was passed upon the town 
its government was in the hands of self-elected Lighting 
and Watching Commissioners and a Board of Highway 
Surveyors. The Corporation did not come into existence 
till 1847, ^G first attempt to obtain a charter under the 


Act of 1835 having been defeated by the stolid conserva- 
tism of the majority of the ratepayers. It is interesting to 
read in the hght of present-day experience how at Brad- 
ford, as well as at Manchester, Birmingham, and other 
places, there were strong manifestations of affection for 
the old order of things and the most determined efforts to 
prevent the introduction of the new. A petition against 
the charter was signed by 12,187 people, whilst one in 
its favour obtained only 10,833 signatures. Among the 
inhabitants who expressed themselves perfectly satisfied 
with the old system of local government were the vicar 
and eight clergymen of the town, the ladies of the manor, 
all the magistrates, and the majority of the professional 
class. Fortunately the reformers were men of even 
greater determination than their opponents. Two years 
later they renewed their application to the Privy Council, 
and this time, thanks mainly to better tactics, success 
rewarded their public-spirited exertions. 

The municipal spirit in Bradford was at first of slow 
growth. For some years the Corporation could make 
little headway with its great work ; it was hampered by 
" vested interests " on the one hand, and harassed on the 
other by ratepayers of little faith in municipal government. 
One of its first tasks was to apply to Parliament for an 
Improvement Act which would empower it to abolish tolls 
and enforce building regulations, extinguish the manorial 
rights, supply water and gas, and so forth. In doing this 
the majority of the Corporation were fiercely assailed by 
property-owners and by a number of ratepayers who, in 
their enthusiasm for " economy " at any cost, obtained the 
sobriquet of " the minority of muck." With the passing 
of the Act Bradford secured what may be described as the 


unification of its local government, the local boards of 
surveyors being abolished and their powers transferred 
to the Corporation ; but for some time the representatives 
on the Council of what had been independent townships 
lost no opportunity of obstructing the operation of the 
Act. Another striking example of the prejudice and self- 
interest which the Corporation had to overcome was 
afforded when it sought to municipalise the water supply. 

Bradford hitherto liad never had a satisfactory supply of 
water. It was both deficient and dear. When the Cor- 
poration took up the matter in 1852 the Company met them 
with a scheme of their own for an extension of the supply, 
and a severe battle had to be fought both in the town and 
in Parliament before the principle of municipalisation could 
be established. In the session of 1853 the bills of both 
the Corporation and the Company were rejected by the 
Parliamentary Committee. Such was the bitterness of 
the conflict that the company took legal proceedings with 
the object of making the members of the Corporation 
personally liable for the expense which had beeh incurred 
— about ;^8ooo — in the promotion of their Bill, on the 
ground that proper notices had not been inserted in the 
newspapers, as required by law. This action did have 
the eflfect of coercing the Corporation into accepting the 
excessive terms demanded by the Company for the transfer 
of its property to the town. Each shareholder received 
;£4o for every ;^2o share, the total cost of the transfer to 
the Municipality being nearly ;£24o,ooo. 

But further delay would have been very dangerous. 
The Company was supplying only 500,000 gallons a day 
for a population of over 100^000 and before the Corporation 
could carry out its scheme for an increased supply the 


town suffered from a water famine. The Bradford Corpor- 
ation is now responsible for the water supply of a popula- 
tion of about 440,000, adjoining towns and villages to the 
number of 31 being served by it.* The average daily 
supply for domestic purposes is about 20 gallons per head. 
The Corporation manages this department on the principle, 
not that a profit is to be made out of it for the benefit of 
the ratepayers, but that the poorest inhabitants are to be 
plentifully provided with this first necessary of life in as 
pure a state and at as small a cost as possible. Thus, with 
an income of ;£'i2i,45i, the department showed a credit 
balance last year of only ;£'i6o, 5s. 6d. Altogether, the 
Bradford Corporation had expended on its water supply 
up to the end of the last financial year something like 
;£"2,4oo,ooo. In more recent years considerable expense 
has been incurred in filtering and purifying the water. 
This expenditure has had no direct pecuniary return, and 
consequently in one or two years the balance-sheets have 
shown that the Water Department had been carried on at 
a loss. But by the laws of health and domestic economy 
the increased expenditure has been more than justified. 
On the other hand, the revenue of the Water Department 

* The municipal boundaries have been extended once — in 1881. 
The Bradford Improvement Bill of that year — which made the 
thirteenth Act of Parliament obtained by the Corporation— as originally 
drafted would have added nine local board districts to the municipal 
area. As passed, however, it added only the townships of Heaton and 
Allerton, and the hamlets of Tyersal and Thornbury. Their annexation 
increased the municipal area from 7221 to 10,775 acres. The Bill was 
stoutly opposed by local gas companies, and in order to obtain its 
passing the Corporation had to submit to a clause prohibiting it from 
supplying gas to the districts that were incorporated — a concession 
to vested interests of which the inhabitants of these districts have good 
reason to complain. 


has rapidly developed — ^showing an increase of 50 per cent, 
in a dozen years — ^and its assets exceed its liabilities by 
nearly ^230,000. At Bradford, it may be added, a con- 
stant supply is provided for domestic purposes at a charge 
based upon the rental value ; whilst for trade and manu- 
facturing purposes water can be obtained by meter, thus 
obviating what is a just grievance on the part of many 
firms and business houses in London. 

After nearly twenty years' experience of the municipal- 
isation of the water supply, the application of the same 
principle to the gas was accomplished with practically the 
unanimous approval of the people of Bradford. The 
Corporation had considerable difficulty, however, in coming 
to terms with the Bradford Gaslight Company, which had 
been established in 182 1 with a capital of ;^i 5,000. After 
three years' negotiation the Company in 1871 agreed to 
sell its property for ;£'2 10,000, and so well satisfied were 
the directors and shareholders with this result that they 
joined the members of the Corporation in a banquet to 
celebrate the event. If the enormous growth which has 
since taken place in the value of the gasworks could have 
been foreseen, probably the shareholders would not have 
rejoiced so heartily with the representatives of the town at 
large. After meeting all charges, including interest and 
sinking fund, Bradford had up till March 31, 1894, made 
a profit on its gas of ;^373,6o9, or an average net profit 
per annum of over ^16,000. At the same time, there has 
been a considerable reduction in the price of gas to the 
individual consumer. In 1873 it was 3s. 6d. per 1000 
cubic feet ; it has since been reduced, by several instalments 
to 2s. 3d., a discount of from 2^ to 12^ per cent. — according 
to the amount of the account — being allowed for prompt 


payment. Moreover, the Gas Committee have for many 
years lighted the street lamps free of charge, paid the wages 
of the lamp-lighters, and purchased lamps. With the 
exception of about ;£■! 2,000 at present unappropriated, 
the whole of the additional profits has been used in re- 
lieving the rates. Of a debt of ;^488,623 incurred in 
respect to the gas supply ;^ 115,667 has already been paid 
off. Altogether, the town has invested in its gas works a 
capital o^ over ;^6oo,ooo, and the assets show an excess 
over liabilities of ;^i64,92 2. 

The electric light enterprise of the Bradford Corporation 
is a remarkable instance of successful municipal trading. 
Although it must be regarded as one of the pioneers in the 
matter, the Corporation did not establish an electric light 
supply till 1890; and already it has become a source of 
profit to the ratepayers. On the first eighteen months there 
was a loss (after payment of interest on loan and contribu- 
tion to the sinking fund) of ;^i739, 3s. 4d. In 1892 there 
was a net profit of ;£i38s, is. lod., in 1893 o^ ^1623, 
15s. lod., and in 1894 of ;^2i38, 19s. 4d., or a return of 
10 per cent, upon the capital then expended. The charge 
made to the consumer, on the other hand, which is sd. a 
unit, compares favourably with the charges made by electric 
light companies. The Liverpool Company, for instance, 
charges yd. per unit, the House to House Company (West 
Kensington) 8d., the Westminster, 6d., and the Eastbourne 
Company 9d. For motive power, moreover, electricity is 
supplied at a charge of only 3 Jd. per unit, and already it 
has been largely brought into use for working the lifts and 
hoists in the merchants' warehouses. 

An endeavour to substitute electrical traction for the 
unsightly steam engines on the tramways has not been so 


successful. There is a strong feeling in Bradford against 
these monstrosities of the streets, but according to the 
directors of the Tramways Company they are practically 
necessary evils ; owing to the steep gradients, horse 
traction is out of the question, and electrical power is too 
expensive. In the hope of being able to prove that the 
use of electricity was economically possible the Corporation 
contributed ^500 towards the cost of an experiment which 
was made last year on one of the routes by a firm of 
electrical engineers. It failed to convince the Tramway 
Company, however, and the new motor was not used as the 
Corporation and the town had hoped on the latest addition 
to the tramways system. 

For an improvement which would relieve the streets of 
noise, smoke, and no small amount of ugliness, Bradford 
will probably have to wait for the municipalisation of the 
tramcars, as well as of the tram-lines. The opinion of 
the town seems strongly set in favour of this step ; the 
more so possibly, because under the terms of the lease 
granted by the Corporation on its constructing the first 
tramways in 1879 — ^^^ ^^^^ being fixed at ;^29o per 
mile for the first ten years, and ;^3oo after — the owner- 
ship of the tramways has not been so profitable as it 
has been to some other municipalities. 

Of a capital expenditure of nearly ;£'9o,ooo on its 
2ii miles of tramways, however, the Corporation has 
repaid nearly ;^2 0,000 ; and last year there was practically 
a profit on the year's rents of ;^2,626, los., which was 
the amount set aside for the sinking fund. When the 
opportunity comes a few years hence, there is little doubt, 
I think, but that Bradford will add the conveyance of 
its citizens in the street cars to its other prosperous 
municipal enterprises. 


Bradford's excellent system of public markets is closely 
related to the street improvements which have formed so 
large and expensive a part of its municipal work. The 
Corporation was led to purchase in 1866 the market 
rights of the lady of the manor, not merely because it 
was of opinion that the food supply of a large town 
should be under municipal supervision and control. The 
existing market-house was a serious obstacle to any good 
scheme for the improvement of the central part of Brad- 
ford, and the feudal privilege of holding periodical fairs 
in several of the most important thoroughfares was the 
cause of much loss and inconvenience to more important 
trade. In these circumstances, the Corporation agreed 
to take a 999 years' lease of the manorial rights at a 
yearly rent of ^5000, to be paid to the lady of the 
manor and her successors, and obtained an Act of Parlia- 
ment empowering it to pull down the old market-house, 
and to build such other market-houses and abattoirs as 
might be necessary. About ^225,000 has been ex- 
pended out of capital under the heading of "markets 
and fairs," but some part of this amount has really been 
invested, for the sake of street improvements, in shop 
and house property and land. Consequently, the Markets 
Committee had to wait for the development in the value 
of this real estate before it could obtain full return for 
its expenditure. Last year's balance-sheet showed, how- 
ever, a clear net profit of between ;^2ooo and ;^3ooo, 
more than half the money borrowed has been repaid, 
and there is now no doubt that the market estate will, 
before long, be a source of great profit to the citizens. 
Viewing the matter from the point of view of the public 
good, there can be no question but that the daily wants 


of all classes have been infinitely better served since the 
establishment of the half-dozen or so municipal markets 
for meat and fish, fruit and vegetables, provisions and 
dry goods, poultry and cattle. Since their establish- 
ment a greatly increased number of people have come 
into the town from the surrounding district to make 
their household purchases. 

The history of street improvements in Bradford has an 
instructive bearing upon a question which so much con- 
cerns the " light and air " of great towns, and consequently 
their social welfare — the question of " betterment." When 
its municipal life began, the centre of Bradford was a 
congery of narrow streets and darksome lanes. For 30 
years the Corporation has been re-modelling the town, 
and the task has cost over a million pounds, or a fifth 
of its debt. These street improvements have been made 
in the interests of the health and convenience of all, but 
incidentally they have enriched not a few owners of pro- 
perty ; and the Bradford Corporation has joined the London 
County Council in endeavouring to obtain legislative recog- 
nition of the principle of betterment. Several examples 
are given in Cudworth's " Historical Notes on the Brad- 
ford Corporation " : — " These and other improvements of 
a similar character were not without effect upon the value 
of property in the borough. The warehouse known as 
* Craven & Harrop's,' at the junction at Charles Street 
and Hall Ings, was sold for ;^i 5,000, after having been 
withdrawn at auction four years before at many thousand 
pounds less. A few years later, Messrs Schuster's stuff 
warehouse was in the market, the site of which was 
valued at j£2o a yard. In 1836, Mr Leo Schuster, the 
first foreign merchant who erected premises in the town. 


gave 25 s. a yard for the land, which was considered an 
extravagant price." In some cases the Corporation has 
endeavoured to recoup itself for the cost of an improve- 
ment by the purchase and re-sale of surplus land, but in 
only one case (when a profit of ;£"! 0,000 was made) has 
it been successful. Nevertheless, its policy in always 
acquiring enough land, not only to widen a street or 
to make a new one, but also form building-sites for the 
frontages of each street, has been fully justified in other 
ways. At one time this policy was severely condemned 
as an undue interference with private enterprise, but it is 
now generally agreed that rights of way and questions of 
light and air would have hampered these street improve- 
ments and rendered them much less complete and satis- 
factory. It was as an after-result of one of these 
improvement schemes, by the way, that Bradford's fine 
Town Hall came to be built. The inadequacy of the 
old municipal offices (which, as a matter of economy, 
had been enlarged but a few years before) to the 
rapidly growing work of the Corporation was being severely 
felt, when the creation of a new street in continuation 
of Market Street in 1867 left vacant a very suitable site 
for the erection of a Town Hall. The " economists " on 
the Council opposed the proposal that it should be 
utilised for this purpose, but their victory was not re- 
peated. The Town Hall was built at a total cost, in- 
cluding site, of ;£"! 40,000. It is a big, handsome 
building : but few citizens of Bradford could now be found 
to say that its municipal works are not worthy of it. 

Bradford has no slums — that is, compared with London, 
Manchester, Liverpool, and other cities which grew to a 
great size before anything like corporate government was 


conferred upon them. There are dingy, dilapidated 
dwellings, but none devoid of light and air and facilities 
for the ordinary decencies of life. The extensive street 
improvements, coupled with a vigorous enforcement of 
sanitary laws, have cleared away slums as we understand 
them in London. Cellar dwellings have been rigorously 
closed and destroyed, and such "back-to-back" houses 
as exist are of an improved type. The Bradford Corpora- 
tion in its best spirit would have put an absolute veto upon 
a method of building which, economical of space, is waste- 
ful of health ; its attempt to do so was defeated by the 
organised opposition of the propertied class, assisted by 
the public ignorance of the hygienic importance of the 
subject. As long ago as i860 the Municipality made 
regulations which required " every building to be used as 
a dwelling-house shall have in the rear, or at the side 
thereof, an open space adjoining, to the extent of at least 
150 square feet." As the result of the next municipal 
elections, however, these regulations were modified so as 
to permit of the erection of " back-to-back " houses pro- 
vided there was a passage between each successive pair of 
dwellings. To this comparative freedom from slums at 
the present must be largely attributable the very favourable 
position which Bradford generally occupies in the mortality 
returns of the Registrar-General. 

In the cause of health the Municipality of Bradford has 
spent the civic funds with no grudging hand. It has in 
recent years, for example, spent nearly ;£"! 00,000 in 
purifying the sewage at its outfall into Bradford Beck, 
the expenditure on this object last year being ;^6ooo. 
Successful as the Corporation has beerl in preserving the 
Beck from pollution, it is not yet satisfied that all that can 


be done has been done in dealing with the problem of the 
sewage of a large town ; and it has recently asked the Local 
Government Board to sanction a loan of ;^i 25,000 with 
which to erect additional works. It cannot be said that 
as muck energy has been shown and as much success 
achieved in combating the smoke evil, although for 
several years the Corporation has had an efficient 
inspector at work. Probably liis labours would have a 
more marked effect upon the pall of smoke which en- 
velopes Bradford if the summonses taken out were dealt 
with by some other tribunal than the borough magistrates, 
who are largely owners of tall chimneys themselves. 
Convictions are generally secured, but the fines imposed 
are ridiculously small, if it is hoped that they will have 
a deterrent effect. At one time the public sentiment of 
the town discouraged any effective action on the part of 
the Corporation ; by many people the smoke was regarded 
as a blessing rather than an evil, a circumstance which 
gave rise to the following rhyme : — 

** How beautiful is the smoke, 
The Bradford smoke ; 
Pouring from numberless chimney-stacks, 
• Condensing and falling in showers of ** blacks," 
All around 
Upon the ground 
In lane and yard and street ; 
Or adding a grace 
To the thankless face 
Of yourself or the man you meet : 
Now in the eye and now on the nose, 
How beautiful is the smoke 1 " 

Even at the present time there is a general feeling of indulg- 
ence towards the smoke as the evidence of Bradford's wealth. 
When it is generally recognised that it is also the evidence 



of great waste, the municipality of Bradford, as well as of 
other manufacturing centres, will probably have for one of 
its most important and beneficent duties the enforcement 
of the use of such preventives of this evil as science has 
already provided. Bradford is not by any means the worst 
sinner against light and cleanliness, however, among the great 
industrial towns, and signs are not altogether wanting that it 
may be the first to realise the pleasanter amenities of life 
in a community which treats the smoke-producing furnace 
as one of the worst offenders against its social welfare. 

Thirty years since the Bradford Corporation recognised 
that the promotion of personal cleanliness, as having a 
direct influence upon health, was a proper subject for 
municipal concern by putting into force the Baths and 
Washhouses Act. It is still true to this view of the matter 
by carrying on these three establishments at a loss, in order 
that the poor may obtain the luxmy of a swim at id., 
a slipper bath at as low a charge as 2d. and 3d., and a 
Turkish bath for 6d. Last year men, women, and children 
had about 180,000 baths at a net cost to the rates of 
nearly ^^1700. Actuated by the same spirit, the Corpora- 
tion in 1869 resolved that "it is desirable that public 
parks and recreation grounds should be established in 
different parts of the borough, namely at Horton, Bowling, 
and Manningham." What is more, the resolution was 
promptly carried into effect. The park at Manningham 
was purchased for ;^4o,ooo from Mr S. C. Lister (now 
Lord Masham), whose name was given to it in recognition 
of the pecuniary sacrifice he made by its sale. The park, 
which contains 56 acres, is one of considerable beauty. 
Peel Park, which was opened in 1863, is about the same 
size ; and altogether Bradford's five parks contain about as 


many acres as its population has thousands. In all, the 
Municipality has spent about ;^i 60,000 upon parks, and 
is at an annual expense in maintaining them of about 
;£"i 1,000. The parks are well provided with musical 
performances, but this is the result of voluntary effort, and 
is not at the public charge. 

A rather novel feature of Bradford's municipal work is 
its Convalescent Home. This is situated in the picturesque 
district of Wharfedale, near Ben Rhydding and Ilkley 
Wells. It was the gift of an ex-Mayor, Mr Charles 
Semon, who presented the building and its grounds, about 
six acres, together with ;^3ooo, on condition that such 
persons should be admitted to the Home as "cannot 
aflTord the expense of going to such places as Ben Rhydding or 
Ilkley Wells but are not so destitute as to need free quarters 
in a public hospital." A charge of 12 s. 6d. per week is ac 
cordingly made, and it is found that this, with the interest on 
the ;^3ooo, more than covers the expenditure. The accom- 
modation is equal to that of a very good hotel, and it is much 
appreciated ; last year the municipal Convalescent Home 
had 905 visitors, the average length of their stay being 
about eighteen days. It is under the management of a 
sub-committee of the General Purposes Committee, and, 
having regard to its origin, can be taken as a witness to the 
high esteem in which the citizens of Bradford hold the 
administration of their municipal affairs. 

As in the promotion of health, so in the advancement of 
education, Bradford municipally has an excellent record. 
In the establishment of libraries, indeed, the Corporation 
was in advance of the general body of citizens. In 1868 it 
passed resolutions in favour of the adoption of the Public 
Libraries Act — three years before it was put in force by the 


vote of the ratepayers. The Central and Branch Libraries 
and Reading-Rooms now contain about 70,000 volumes, 
which were last year issued to readers a million and a half 
times. To this municipal stock of books an interesting sup- 
plement is being made by the Mayors of Bradford, who com- 
memorate theu: term of office by a gift of the books which 
they would most wish to be read by their fellow-townsmen. 

The Central Library, which numbers about 40,000 
volumes, shares a handsome building with a Museum and 
an Art Gallery. The collection of pictures is yet in its 
infancy, but a good beginning has been made, and, before 
very long, Bradford will doubtless have a collection worthy 
of its renown in other spheres of municipal activity. In 
1893 spring and autumn exhibitions of the year's pictures 
were held for the first time under the auspices of the 
Corporation, with such success that it was decided to 
repeat the experiment. With characteristic spirit the 
Corporation resolved to throw open the exhibitions, which 
included specimens of the work of Aumonier, David 
Murray, MacWhirter, Lady Butler, Wyke Bayliss, etc., free 
of charge on Saturdays and Sundays. As the result, the 
visitors on these two days numbered nearly 200,000 ; on 
the other days of the week, when 6d. was charged, only 
about 3000. But the Art Committee did not contemplate 
making a profit out of these exhibitions, as is done in some 
towns, which are henceforth to be one of the features of 
Bradford's municipal work. In the Museum, it should be 
added, a library of art books has been started which 
already numbers a thousand volumes. 

The Library rate in Bradford has been voluntarily 
increased to ijd. in the pound, which now produces 
;^5ooo a year. There has been spent out of the Borough 


Funds on the Central Library and Museum and the eight 
Branch Libraries and Reading-Rooms nearly ^^7 5,000. The 
Central Library now receives a little assistance also from 
the Exchequer Contribution Account. The " drink money " 
which has gone to Bradford since Mr Goschen's Act of 
1 89 1, amounts to ;£^2 0,063 ; and the whole sum has been 
applied to education, the Library receiving ;£'i900. The 
remainder has gone in the form of grants to the School 
Board, the Technical College, and other institutions. 
The Technical College has received more than half the 
total amount, its annual grant of ;^3ooo representing more 
than a third of its income. In return for this contribution 
the Municipality has obtained 300 scholarships and a 
considerable share in the management of the institution. 
The College has 1200 pupils of both sexes receiving 
instruction in all branches of science and art and in the 
principal industries of Bradford, such as dyeing and 
weaving. With so large a number of scholarships and a 
strong tendency towards low fees, the institution is probably 
destined to become a municipal institution at no distant 
date. As it is, the civic pride which the policy of the Cor- 
poration has done so much to cultivate, was largely the cause 
of the movement in 1880-82 among the Bradford merchants 
for the establishment of an institution which should be a 
worthy compeer to the Yorkshire College at Leeds. 

In connection with the Technical College there has 
been established a municipal institution which is the first 
of its kind in the United Kingdom. This is the Condi- 
tioning House, in which the true weight, length, and 
conditions of Bradford's principal articles of commerce are 
determined scientifically and by an impartial authority. 
Goods are brought in bulk to the Conditioning House, and 


here, with the aid of various machines and appliances, 
subjected to tests that show the percentage of moisture, 
oil and fatty matters in the wool, yams and cloths, the 
percentage of cotton and wool in mixed yams, the breaking 
strength of fabrics, etc. Such information, embodied in an 
official certificate, is of the highest importance to merchants 
and manufacturers; and in nearly every case of dispute 
between buyers and sellers, resort is now made to the 
Conditioning House. The institution, which is, of course, 
a common one on the Continent, was established by the 
Municipality in 1887, on the suggestion of the Bradford 
Chamber of Commerce, and has been in all respects an 
unqualified success. In 1893-94 no fewer than 22,728 
tests were made, the goods brought to the Conditioning 
House weighing in the aggregate nearly eight and a half 
million pounds. In the same period the fees for testing 
amounted to ;^i2o8, 14s. 6d., while the expenses were 
only ;^ioo8, i6s. In many cases the tests were made for 
the purposes of arbitration cases, and in Courts of Law the 
certificates of the Conditioning House can be tendered as 
legal evidence. Seeing that the new institution has been 
so warmly appreciated by the commercial community of 
" Worstedopolis," it is not surprising that Manchester has 
resolved to follow Bradford's example. 

Critics of the spirited policy of the Bradford Corpora- 
tion truly say that it has had as its sequel a considerable 
increase in the rates. Since 1879 the rates — Bradford 
is blessed with an equal system of rating all over the 
municipal area — have increased from 3s. iid. in the 
pound to 6s. id. This latter figure — which is for the 
current year — included iid. in the pound for the School 
Board and 7d. in the pound for the administration of 


the Poor Law, leaving the rate for which the Corporation 
is responsible 4s. yd., of which is. 6d. is on account of 
the Street Improvement Committee. There would be 
nothing alarming about these figures for the ratepayers 
of London ; it would be well, indeed, if every quarter 
of a miUion of the population of London could enjoy at 
the same cost the municipal advantages that Bradford 
offers to its citizens. But this large increase in fifteen 
years has severely tested, it may be supposed, the feith of 
the people of Bradford in their municipal government; 
their faith has stood the test, and, so far from any sign of 
reaction manifesting itself, all parties on the Corporation 
are more or less in favour of extending still further the 
sphere of its activity for the good of the town as a whole. 
That it is so, is the best possible comment on the character 
of tjie men the citizens have found to serve them at the 
Town Hall. Every intelligent citizen feels and knows 
that the great improvement in the welfare of the town 
which has been brought about by municipal action — the 
saving of lives, and the bettering of health, the cheaper 
and purer light, water and air, the enlarged opportunities 
for mental culture, social pleasure, and athletic sport — 
represents not merely the expenditure of public money, 
but also the devoted and faithful service of members of 
the Council which cannot be put into figures. An 
incident which occurred only last year will illustrate the 
high conception of civic duty that has been brought 
about in Bradford. A fire broke out at the Scholemoor 
Small-pox Hospital, which is under the management of 
the Sanitary Committee of the Corporation. The Vice- 
Chairman of this Committee, hearing of the occurrence, 
hastened to the scene and assisted in removing the patients. 


with the result that he contracted the disease and died 
within a month. 

The total expenditure of the Municipality last year 
exceeded one million and fifty thousand sterling, but of 
this sum less than a sixt^ was expenditure from the rates. 
At the same time, the Corporation's balance-sheet showed 
an excess of assets over liabilities of about one and a half 
million. There is nothing unsatisfactory about these 
figures. But the growth of the Corporate debt, and the 
consequent increase in the burden of rates, has prompted 
inquiry at Bradford, as elsewhere, into the justice of the 
present incidence of local taxation. In its existence of 
less than fifty years the Corporation has borrowed nearly 
six million sterling, and has repaid a little more than a 
million, its present indebtedness amounting to j£4,'j22y6ig. 
The number of years allowed for repayment has varied 
from fifteen to one hundred years. There can be no 
question, there is no question among those who remember 
the town forty years ago, that in various ways Bradford has 
received value for this money manifold. But it is clear 
that the burden of this debt is not fairly adjusted to the 
benefit that is individually derived from it. I have spoken 
of the adoption of the principle of " Betterment " by the 
Bradford Corporation; there is reason to think that it 
signified much as to the trend of opinion both in the Council 
and among the general body of the citizens. There is 
little danger, I think, of Bradford falling back from the 
vigorous and enlightened municipal policy on which it has 
entered. But it is more sensible, I think, of the difficulties 
under which such a policy is placed by the present system 
of rating, and may be expected to give its strong support 
when some united effort is m^de by municipal bodies to 
place that system on a juster and more equitable basis. 


An Old Corporation — Curious History of the Water Supply — ^The 
B^[inning of an Active Municipal Policy — The Achievements of 
Thirty Years — More Open Space than any other Provincial City — 
Woodhouse Moor and Roundhay Park — ^The Allotment Gardens 
— Profits on the Gas Undertaking — Eight Months' Municipal 
Working of the Tramways — A Success to be Quoted — The 
Public Markets — ^The Re-construction of Streets, &c. — Municipal 
Activity in the cause of Health — How the Refuse of the City 
is disposed of— The Central Library and fifty-three Branch 
Libraries — The Art Gallery and Museum — The Unequal Rates 
of the City — The Balance-Sheet of the Corporation— The 
Municipal Future of the City. 

Leeds has a municipal history of more than 250 years. 
It was incorporated in 1626 by a charter of Charles L, 
which constituted a Town Council of one alderman, 
nine "principal burgesses," and twenty "assistants." A 
second charter was granted by Charles 11. in 1661, was 
in suspense for a time, restored by William and Mary> 
and is still in force so far as it is consistent with the 
provisions of the Municipal Corporations Act. 

But whilst these circumstances are of much historical 
interest to the people of Leeds, they cannot be said to 
have had much influence upon its civic welfare. It 
appears from a Minute in 1798 that the Corporation 
had then no funds, excepting the interest on a capital 
of ;^i8oo, which had accrued from fees of admission, 
or from fines paid by persons refusing to serve. The 


town had, it is true, under an Act of 1790, a public 
supply of water, but this was in the hands of a body of 
Commissioners specially created by this Act, which also 
conferred upon them powers for lighting and cleansing 
the streets, and for preventing nuisances. The Com- 
missioners, who raised the necessary rates for these 
purposes, had their powers extended in 1824 to enable 
them to effect street improvements which, with an in- 
crease of the population from 53,162 in 1801, to 83,796 
in 1 82 1, had become urgently necessary. Very little was 
done under this Act, however, by the Commissioners or 
the Corporation, which in 1835 ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ duties, 
and in 1842 it was superseded by one of still larger 

With the important exception I am about to mention, 
the active work of the Municipality cannot be said to 
have begun till about 1866. The history of the water 
supply in Leeds is probably unique; from public owner- 
ship it passed into private hands, and from private hands 
it passed again to public ownership. By an Act of 
1837 the old Commissioners transferred the property to 
a company with a capital of ;^9 1,500. No purchase 
money was paid, the only condition made by the Com- 
missioners being that the company should take over 
their debts and liabilities. At the instance of the 
Corporation, however, a clause was inserted requiring 
the company to sell the undertaking to it at the 
end of twelve years. If the Corporation should then 
desire to purchase it, the amount subscribed by the 
shareholders was to be paid, together with the arrears, 
if any, which might at the time of purchase be required 
to make up the interest on every share to the full 

LEEDS. 107 

statutory amount of j£6 per cent, per annum. Two 
years before this period expired the capital of the 
company was increased to a quarter of a million, and 
the Corporation obtained the right to appoint half the 
directors. This dual system of private ownership, and 
municipal control quickly came to an end, and in 1852 
the Corporation purchased the water-works on the terms 
set forth in the Act of 1837, the total price being 

The Corporation has since spent an additional million 
and a half in improving and increasing the supply. In 
the last ten years the daily consumption of water has 
increased from eight millions to thirteen millions, an 
increase of over 60 per cent, as compared with an increase 
in the population of only about 20 per cent. The water 
is brought from the River Washburn, a tributary of the 
Wharfe, and a constant service is provided for domestic 
use. A water rate is levied, varying from 4s. on houses 
of the annual value of ^^4 to ;^ 10 on houses of the value 
of ;£^25o per annum; but where water is used for manu- 
facturing purposes it can be obtained through a meter 
at a charge of 6d. per thousand gallons. In 1883 the 
water supplied in this way was on the average a little 
less than 2,000,006 gallons per day; in 1892 it had 
increased to 3,300,000. In developing this fine water 
supply the Corporation has made large profits for the 
ratepayers generally. In 1893-94 the balance of the 
year's income over expenditure was ;^24,434, of which 
amount about ;£^i 7,000 was applied to the redemption 
of loans, and over jQ^ooo to the relief of the rates. 

Since 1867 (that is, during the reign of a democratic 
municipal Electorate) in contrast with its inertia for the 


preceding thirty years, the Corporation has accomplished 
a great amount of good work. It has municipalised the 
gasworks and — ^as I have shown — greatly improved the 
water supply ; it has constructed a new system of sewage, 
and made several important improvements in sanitation 
generally; it has established public markets and muni- 
cipalised the tramways ; it has carried out great street 
improvements and swept away a vexatious system of tolls ; 
it has brought into existence a number of public libraries, 
a museum and an art gallery and endowed technical 
education; it has built hospitals and taken vigorous 
measures in the interests of public health ; it has made 
the most bountiful provision of open space for the pleasure 
and recreation of the citizens, and it has secured for some 
of them the boon of allotment gardens. 

In these two last-mentioned things the Leeds Cor- 
poration has distinguished itself from the other great 
Municipalities of the country. In proportion to population 
it is the owner of more acres of open space than any 
other city, and it was the first great Municipality to put 
into force recent legislation respecting land for allotment. 
Both circumstances can be attributed — ^the one directly, 
the other indirectly — ^to the extraordinary size of the 
municipal area of Leeds. It measures 21,572 acres, and 
includes, of course, a large portion of agricultural land. 
With a circumference of 31 miles, Leeds has been 
untroubled by any question of extension of boundaries; 
and in the provision of parks the Municipality has been 
able to exercise a wise and economic forethought without 
feeling that at the expense of its own ratepayers it was 
largely benefiting a population over whom it had not, 
and might never have, any jurisdiction. Its fifteen parks 

LEEDS. 109 

and open spaces contain 663 acres, or nearly two acres 
to every thousand of its population of 367,000. With the 
exception of Woodhouse Moor, they have all been opened 
within the last twenty-five years. Altogether ;£'2 40,000 
has been spent in the purchase of these parks and open 
spaces, and in 1893-94 their maintenance, &c., cost 
;^2 5,000. By its Improvement Act of 1893 the Corpora- 
tion was empowered to spend ;^5oo a year on musical 
performances in the parks. 

The circumstances under which Woodhouse Moor 
became a place of recreation in 1857 have rather an 
exceptional interest. A large piece of waste land, from 
time immemorial given over to swamp and bog, a public- 
spirited citizen was one day seized with the idea of 
converting it into a public park. He urged the idea 
again and again upon his fellow-townsmen, but they only 
ridiculed it as impracticable. But the man was an 
enthusiast. He changed his residence so as to be close 
to the Moor, and early morning and late evening — before 
and after his daily work as a journalist — throughout the 
summer he plied his pick and shovel there with the object 
of demonstrating the feasibility of his scheme. In this 
object he succeeded. Influential members of the Cor- 
poration became his warm allies, and in the result Leeds 
had its first public park. Thus brought into existence 
by a remarkable object-lesson in civic patriotism, for a 
surprisingly long time it was the last as well as the first. 

By the acquisition of Roundhay Park in 1870, however, 
the Municipality made a noble beginning to a policy it 
has since actively continued. This fine estate consisted 
of 774 acres. Three hundred were laid out as a public 
park, 61 have been sold for building purposes, and 413 


are let to fanners and gardeners, pending the maturing of 
the full residential value of the land. Roundhay Park 
is about a mile and a half from the centre of the city, to 
which it forms so beautiful and attractive a place of resort. 
As the inevitable result of the lateness with which the 
"open space'' movement was begun, whilst the suburbs 
have each their " lung " the central area is entirely built 
over. Of the places of recreation owned by the Munici- 
pality only one has been presented to the city — viz., 
Kirkstall Abbey and grounds, which were given by Col. 
North in 1890. To the grounds (about 15 acres) as pur- 
chased by him the Corporation has since added six acres 
by purchase from lady Cardigan. 

Under the Allotments Act the Corporation has purchased 
two sites in the city for the purpose of letting them out as 
allotment gardens. The first, which was opened in June 
1892, contains about 46,700 square yards in the district 
of Burley, and is divided into 104 allotments, varying in 
size from 243 to 550 square yards. The second, situated 
in the district of Harehills, was oflfered for hiring in 
February 1892. It contains about 28,000 square yards, 
and is let in 77 allotments of from 252 to 519 square 
yards each. The rents have in all cases been fixed 
at one penny per square yard, payment being required 
three months in advance, and on these terms there has 
been, I believe, a keen demand for the allotments on the 
part of thrifty working men and others, to whom they 
oflfer recreative and remunerative occupation in spare 
hours. In the purchase and preparation of the land, the 
Corporation has incurred a capital expenditure of about 
;;^7ooo, and it is anticipated that from the rents of the 
allotments it will easily be able to meet all charges. 

LEEDS. 1 1 1 

Leeds has had nearly twenty-five years' experience of the 
municipal ownership of gas, with the result that the price 
of gas is now 2S. 4d. per thousand, and that on the balance- 
sheet of the undertaking there is a surplus of ;;^2i5,2 2 7. 
On the account for the year 1892-3 there was a profit 
of ^13,259. Before 1870 the supply of gas in Leeds 
was " exploited " by two companies, for whose property the 
Corporation had to p^y a sum of nearly ;^7oo,ooo. It 
has since expended another half million sterling on the 
extension of the works. 

Electric Lighting is not yet a municipal undertaking. 
The Corporation obtained a Provisional Order in 1892, but 
ultimately resolved to permit a company to supply the 
light within the city. This company is now at work and 
iSy I am told, gradually extending its works to meet the 
increasing demand for the new illuminant. The Corpora- 
tion has an installation of its own for the lighting of the 
Town Hall and the municipal buildings ; but, having 
entered into a contract with the company, the use of this 
is to be discontinued. Having regard to the very satis- 
factory experience of the neighbouring Corporation of 
Bradford in the municipalisation of the electric light, the 
members of the Leeds Council must be beginning to 
doubt the wisdom of their abdication in favour of the 
directors of a dividend-making company. 

On the other hand, the Corporation has already good 
reason to rejoice that early in 1894 it undertook the 
working of the tramways. The inefficiency of the tramway 
service and its hardships for the employes had long been 
a cause of public dissatisfaction. The property of the 
company — cars, engines, horses, depots, &c. — was taken 
over by the Corporation in accordance with the terms of 


an arbitrator's award, the total municipal loan raised for 
the purpose being ^f 130,000. On beginning its work in 
February last year, the first care of the Tramways Com- 
mittee, in response to a clearly voiced public sentiment, 
was to increase the wages and reduce the hours of drivers 
and conductors at an increased cost per annum of about 
^3000. Several improvements were ako made with 
a view to the greater convenience and comfort of the 
public, with the result that in the eight months — February 
to September 1894 — the Corporation carried about half 
a million more passengers than did the company in the 
corresponding period of the previous year. 

Although the Municipality of Leeds has not gone into 
the business with as much spirit as that of Glasgow, the 
financial result of its experiment has so far been not at all 
unsatisfactory. For the first eight months — and at the 
moment of writing the figures are not obtainable beyond 
that period — there was a gross profit of ;£s676, os. 4d., 
or ;^4Si9, 6s. lod., after a liberal allowance for deprecia- 
tion. Interest on the loan absorbed the sum of j£2g6'j 
9s., leaving a net profit of ;;^iS52, 4s. 6d. Nominally 
there was a deficit on the eight months' working, however, 
of ;^404, 7s. 6d., the Committee making a contribution 
to the sinking fund of ;£i956, 12s. But as the repay- 
ment of the loan would leave the Corporation in free 
possession of the tramway business, it is obvious that in the 
ordinary sense of the word the sum of jCiSS^ was its 
profit on the eight months' trading. Had the undertaking 
remained in the hands of the company the whole of the^ 
gross profit, minus only the sum of ;^ii56, 6s. lod. 
allowed for depreciation, would have been available for 
distribution among its shareholders in the form of dividend. 


Considering that in the first eight months of municipal 
ownership such a result was obtained, side by side with 
more generous treatment of the tram-workers and better 
facilities for the travelling public, the experience of Leeds 
can be confidently appealed to in support of the move- 
ment for municipalising the tram service generally.* 

The Leeds Corporation is the owner of three markets, 
a weights and measures office, and the Corn Exchange. 
The laigest of the three markets has taken the place of 
a great deal of insanitary property at Kirkgate ; besides 
extensive covered buildings, it has a large open space 
where market gardeners and others can exhibit their 
produce for sale. In 1892 the revenue of the market 
was ;^i 3,087 as against an expenditure of ;£4i24. 
The comparatively small Central Market had an income 
of ;;^i483 as against an expenditure of ;^i7i. The 
Victoria Cattle Market showed a surplus of nearly ;^Soo, 
the receipts being ;;^i4i4 and the expenses ;^949; 
and the Corn Exchange of nearly ;^i6oo, the receipts 
amounting to jQ2,^^2 and the expenses to ;;^8o3. Thus 
the Markets Committee added to the municipal funds 
for^ the year the sum of about ;^'i 2,000. Altogether, 
the Corporation has incurred a capital expenditure in 
respect to markets of ;;^262,io3, and the profits are 
accordingly at the rate of rather more than 4^ per cent. 
The rights of the Corporation, by the way, as the sole 
market authority in the city of Leeds, were confirmed in 
its general Act of 1893. The expediency of such rights 

* It should be added, perhaps, that; an electric tramway to Roundhay 
Park has been for two or three years in the hands of a private con- 
tractor, to whom the Corporation has granted a concession, renewable 



which throw a strong light on the importance of his 
department of municipal work. The Corporation of 
Leeds, by the way, has now what all Municipalities ought 
to have — legal power to prevent the building of any 
more " back-to-back " houses. Dr Cameron also gives us 
some information of considerable interest respecting dwell- 
ings which, on inspection, were found to be ^'sanitarily 
unsafe." In the course of 1893, 9379 houses were 
examined and in 5 181 sanitary defects were discovered, 
equal to 55 per cent. In 1892 the houses "sanitarily 
unsafe" were 63 per cent, and in 1891 they were 70 per 
cent It may be of interest to add that the Medical Officer 
of Health is paid a salary of ;;£7oo, and that he has under 
him a staff of inspectors and clerks whose aggregate salaries 
amount to ;;^3458. 

In addition to several hospitals the Leeds Corporation 
has a Sanatorium, where relatives, &c., of persons found 
to be suffering from infectious diseases can be detained 
till the danger of the infection declaring itself in them is 
over, and a Convalescent Home. In respect to hospitals, 
&C., a capital expenditure of nearly ;;^ 100,000 has been 
incurred, and for 1893-94 the annual expenditure was 
about ;;^i 2,000. 

In Leeds the whole of the refuse of houses, the markets, 
&c., is disposed of by means of those inventions which 
are becoming known to municipal bodies as " Destructors." 
The city is now provided with three of these establishments, 
where between 50,000 and 60,000 tons of refuse are 
consumed in fire during the year, instead of having to be 
conveyed to depositories some distance from the city. 
The annual cost of the " Destructors " is about ;^6ooo, 
but from this amount must be deducted about ^^900 

LEEDS. 117 

which is realised by the sale of mortar produced in the 
" Destructors." In this economical fashion the Corpora- 
tion of Leeds has solved since 1878 one of the most 
difficult problems with which municipal bodies have to 
deal. The city's sewage system, on the other hand, is 
still incomplete. It has already cost the Municipality half a 
million sterling, and the Leeds Improvement Act of 1893 
provides for the expenditure of about ;;^2 00,000 more. 

The Leeds Town Hall, where free organ recitals are 
given of an afternoon by Dr Spark, the city organist, is, 
it is rather surprising to learn, nearly forty years old. It 
was built in 1856-58, when the work of the Municipality 
was small, indeed, compared with what it is to-day. But 
even in this big structure it has been found impossible to 
carry on this ever-increasing volume of work. A few 
years ago a fine building was erected in proximity to the 
Town Hall, which, at a total cost of about ;;^i 30,000, serves 
the several purposes of municipal offices. Public Library, 
and Reading-Room, Art Gallery and Museum. By this 
composite and doubtless economical arrangement some 
sacrifice has been made of the value of the Reference 
Library. The exigencies of space have caused it to be 
placed at the top of the building, and eighty-four steps 
have to be ascended before it can be reached. This 
circumstance has had its inevitable result upon the use to 
which the books are put. In 1888-89 ^^^ issues in the 
Reference Library — which contains over 45,000 volumes 
— numbered 122,466; in 1893 they numbered only 
111,451. So far as I am aware, this is the only instance 
of a Public Library in one of our great towns being on 
what may be termed the " down grade." 

Apart from this unfortunate blunder, the principle of the 


Public Library has obtained a vigorous growth in Leeds. 
It has more branch libraries than any other city in the 
kingdom. They number fifty-three and contain over 
90,000 volumes ; of these thirty-one are for the exclusive 
use of children. There is also a special library of books 
with raised letters for the blind, whose number in Leeds 
is about 400. In all, these libraries contain over 182,000 
volumes, and in 1893 nearly ;^66oo was spent upon their 
maintenance. In the course of the year the number of 
books was increased by over 8000 ; but nevertheless the 
Libraries and Art Gallery Committee, in their annual 
report, state that the amount obtainable from the penny 
rate 0^5439, us.) and other sources ii^as "inadequate for 
properly maintaining and extending the work entrusted to 
the Committee, and the time is fast approaching when the 
whole question of *ways and means' will have to be 

Of the proceeds of the penny rate ;^8oo was in 1893 
contributed to the expenses of the Art Gallery and 
Museum. The balance-sheet of this institution shows an 
expenditure considerably more than this sum, but most of 
the items have reference to the loan exhibition, which is 
held every spring. The Committee obtain recoupment 
for these expenses from commission on the sale of pictures 
and small charges for admission. In respect to the last 
spring exhibition there was an adverse balance of only 
;^3; although out of 50,607 visitors 2355 were school 
children, who were admitted free. The Committee have 
wisely abandoned a practice of closing the entire Gallery 
during the continuance of these exhibitions, which last 
about one hundred days. The loan collection is now so 
arranged that, at the same time, the greater part of the 

LEEDS. 119 

Gallery containing the permanent collection can be open 
free of charge. This collection is of the estimated value 
of about ;^i 5,000, of which amount about ;^i 2,500 is 
represented by works that have been given to the Cor- 
poration. The great difficulty of the Municipality in doing 
what it wishes to do for the art education of the people 
is its lack of power to raise the necessary funds. 

This difficulty has, during the last year or so, been 
partially met by the grants made to the Art Gallery Com- 
mittee out of the money which the Corporation has 
received from the increased excise duties. In 1893 this 
amounted to ;^6245, ^^^ £^^^ ^^is voted for the 
purchase of pictures. The remainder was devoted to the 
assistance of such technical instruction as is given by 
the Leeds School Board, the Yorkshire College, the 
Mechanics' Institute, &c. The School Board received 
;;^3ooo and the Yorkshire College ;^95o. 

Like the London County Council, the Corporation of 
Leeds was probably under some temptation to apply the 
money it receives from increased liquor duties to the relief 
of rates. Compared with those of Birmingham, Liverpool, 
and Glasgow its rates are rather high, although they 
cannot be so described when compared with those of 
most London parishes. By the Improvement Act of 
1893 four separate rates for sewers, highways, street im- 
provements and public lighting were consolidated into 
one, but Leeds has not yet obtained anything like uni- 
formity in its rating. The amount in the pound differs, 
indeed, in almost every one of the eleven townships 
forming the city; including the School Board rate of 
IS. id. in the pound, the maximum in 1893-4 was 5s. iid. 
in Chapel AUerton, and the minimum 4s. 9d. in Beeston, 


the amount payable by Leeds proper being 5s. in the 
pound. The rates for whose expenditure the Corpora- 
tion was responsible varied from 3s. lod. in Chapel 
Allerton to 2s. 4d. in Beeston. 

The municipal debt of Leeds at the 25 th of March 
1894 stood at ;^4,976,542. Of this amount over 
;£2,7oo,ooo had been incurred upon the remunerative 
undertakings of the gas and water. As against the borrow- 
ing powers of the Corporation it has still ^1,200,000 to 
expend, and on the aggr^ate balance-sheet its surplus of 
assets over liabilities was j£it35 i>ooo. Its sinking fund in- 
vestments amount to about half a million sterling, and stock 
to the amount of about ^100,000 has been cancelled. 

In 1893 Leeds received an Order in Council con- 
ferring upon it the dignity of a City. The Corporation 
appears to be bent upon justifying its new honour by 
renewed vigour in municipal well-doing. In the same 
year it obtained the Act, to which I have already had 
occasion to refer, under whose authority it has begun a 
fresh series of street improvements, the completion of 
its sewage system, and the construction of works for the 
better disposal of the sewage, and for the extension of the 
gasworks and waterworks. For these purposes the Cor- 
poration, as I have already indicated, has large borrow- 
ing powers. Of the six great Municipalities with whose 
work I have dealt, not one has had in its time a stronger 
bias in favour of private enterprise in matters which are 
of public concern. But even in Leeds this bias is rapidly 
giving way before the weight of experience in other cities, 
and it may not be very long before "the commercial 
capital of Yorkshire " in its municipal work as a whole 
is abreast of the best of them. 


The doctrine of "Compensation," which Emerson so 
steadfastly held, has in it, perhaps, more of comfort than 
of truth. But, if he were writing his well-known essay 
to-day, Emerson would certainly find another powerful 
illustration of its verity in the growth of English cities, 
on the one hand, and the development of their municipal 
organisation, on the other. The gravitation of our race 
from the country to the town is often lamented as pro- 
ducing and emphasising such evils as dirt and disease, 
overcrowding and crime. But there is * another side to the 
shield' — the side which is now beginning to come into 
prominence. The cure for these evils can be largely found 
in their causes — which sounds like a paradox, but is yet a 
truth. If the concentration of many people on a small 
area causes the conduct of everyone to be of concern to 
the welfare of the whole, it also enables collective control 
to be exercised over the individual with little difficulty or 
expense. If it deprives the individual of some of the 
pleasures of life in fields and by hedgerows, it also enables 
him to obtain others which in a village are impossible. 

These considerations are merely the commonplaces of 
the question, town versus country. But, nevertheless, they 
underlie the whole subject of municipal government as it 
is now being daily discussed. If they are fully realised, it 
will be seen that it should be the object and the duty of 
municipal government to make the most of the power 


size continue to be deprived of even such an amount of 
municipal socialism as has already been proved to be for 
the good of provincial cities ? Let me deal with the second 
question first. 

A distinguished member of Parliament, addressing a 
meeting in support of the '' Moderate " candidates for the 
London County Council just before the election of 1892, 
said, '* If experiments in Socialism were to be carried on, 
they ought to be made upon some theatre smaller than the 
metropolis." * By " experiments in Socialism " was meant 
the municipal ownership of water, gas, markets and tram- 
ways, advocated by the Progressive party on the London 
County Council. If this gentleman should honour me 
by reading this book, I trust he will be ready to admit 
that these experiments have been made "on a theatre 
smaller than the metropolis," and with success. I am 
quite aware that this ostrich-like attitude is not usually 
adopted by the sceptics and opponents with whom 
London municipal reformers have to contend. They 
do not usually deny that that municipal socialism which is 
claimed for London is to be found in working order in 
our principal provincial cities; many sometimes admit 
that in these provincial cities it has been successful. 
But even these with one voice proclaim that Ix)ndon is 
far too large for anything of the kind ; that municipalisa- 
tion of gas, water, and other monopolies may be a good 
thing in Glasgow, with its population of 656,000, but it 
would be a bad thing in London, with its population of 
over 4,000,000. It was with this argument that the 
" Moderate " or anti-municipal party in London went 

* Mr R. B. Finlay, Q.C., then M.P. for Inverness, at St James's 
Hall, Feb, 25, 1892. 


to the polls in 1892.* The business, they said, would 
be too great for a public body to manage well; giving 
employment, as it would, to such enormous numbers of 
people, its management would necessarily be overrun by 
jobbery and corruption. Is there anything in the ex- 
perience of the provincial Municipalities which justifies 
this fear? In the size of their undertakings there are 
differences as great as between the Metropolis and Man- 
chester, Liverpool, or Glasgow. The Manchester Cor- 
poration, for instance, supplies with water a population 
of about 1,000,000, which is five times as large as the 
population supplied by the Oldham Corporation. Glasgow 
has invested in its municipal gasworks five times the 
amount of capital employed in those of Dundee. Yet 
the good management of these monopolies in Glasgow 
and Manchester is certainly not inferior to that in Dundee 
and Oldham, and I do not think there has ever been more 
danger of jobbery and corruption in the former than in 
the latter Municipalities. 

If the relative size of the municipal constituencies in 
Manchester or Glasgow as compared with those of London 
be taken into account, it must be admitted that the peril 
of electoral corruption is probably as great. After all, 
there is ample protection against such dangers in an 
active civic spirit, and, once it has been given full 
municipal powers, this is nowhere more likely to flourish 
than in London. 

As a matter of fact, it need hardly be said, the members 
of provincial Municipalities do not find that the difficulty 
of managing these undertakings in proportion to their 

* Speeches by Sir Henry James and others, Times^ March 4, 


size. And as the greater importance of the municipal 
work of cities like Birmingham and Manchester has 
attracted to the Council men of greater ability than are 
to be found in the Town Halls, say, of Huddersfield or 
Leicester, so London, it may be expected, could rely on 
the services of men of even higher talent. Are there not 
already indications, indeed, that the great municipal work 
of London as it is to be will share with Parliament itself 
the genius of statesmen ? 

On the other hand, because of its size, London should 
be able to achieve an even greater success in the muni- 
cipal ownership of its monopolies than either Manchester 
or Birmingham, Liverpool or Glasgow. If Manchester 
can relieve its rates from this source to the amount of 
;^i 00,000 in one year, if Birmingham can reduce the 
price of its gas by 33 per cent and yet make an annual 
profit upon it of ;;^4o,ooo, if Liverpool realises on its 
markets more than the proceeds of a penny rate, if 
Glasgow can supply its citizens with the purest and 
cheapest water in the country and at the same time 
obtain an annual profit of ;;^So,ooo from its sale — ^what 
could not London gain, with a population greater than 
these four cities put together, from the same municipal 
policy. London is, it is true, at a much greater distance 
from lake districts and coal mines than either; but with 
its immensely larger number of consumers, water and light 
could be supplied to Londoners far more cheaply than 
they are to the citizens of Manchester or Birmingham, 
Liverpool or Glasgow. Water would probably be supplied 
for domestic purposes, as it is in Birmingham and Liver- 
pool, practically at cost price, and by means of a rate ; but 
on the supply of gas, used as it is in greatly varying 


quantities by rich and by poor, for industrial and for 
domestic purposes, a fine revenue might be legitimately 
obtained, to be devoted in various ways to the promotion 
of the social welfare of the city. The cheapening of food, 
and. not the making of profit, would be the main object 
in the municipal management of the markets ; but, accord 
ing to the experience of these provincial cities, London's 
Municipality in doing the one would also accomplish the 

From the surplus revenues of these monopolies, indeed, 
London might be provided with those means of pleasure 
and enjoyment in which as compared with provincial cities 
it is still greatly deficient. In one respect — that of open 
spaces — London is probably already as well off as most 
of them, thanks to the vigorous policy of the County 
Council in increasing the number of its * lungs ' from 40 in 
1888 to over 80 in 1894 and their acreage from about 
2600 to nearly 3700. But one has only to compare 
Bradford, having a population of 220,000, with any area 
in London of similar population to discover how deficient 
the metropolis is in those things by which provincial 
municipalities have helped to make life better worth living 
to their poorer citizens. Baths, Libraries, Reading-Rooms, 
Art Gallery, Technical School, Museum — there is not a 
London parish that has them all as Bradford has had them 
for years. 

In its turn, London may yet profoundly influence the 
future of the provincial Municipalities as their example 
now stirs the energies of London reformers. As I have 
stated, the London movement in favour of the "Better- 
ment" tax and the rating of ground values has already 
obtained the support of the Municipalities of Manchester 


and Bradford. The action of the London County Council 
in seeking Parliamentary powers not only to own the tram- 
ways but also to work them, was promptly followed by steps 
on the part of Glasgow and Leeds which have enabled 
these Municipalities to undertake the important business of 
urban transit, with great advantage to the public and with 
every prospect of financial success. Edinburgh is following 
the same example, and in the other large cities there is a 
disposition to do likewise when the expiration of the tram- 
way companies' leases provide the Municipalities with the 
opportunity. There is, moreover, no more striking feature 
of the municipal policy of the great provincial cities at the 
present moment than its attitude to Labour. If the great 
Municipalities do not yet fully recognise their responsi- 
bilities as "model employers of labour," much has been 
accomplished to this end which can be clearly traced to 
the impetus given by the London County Council to the 
movement for a standard rate of wages and uniform 
number of hours. Mr John Morley has said, in regard to 
the regulation of the hours of labour and similar Socialistic 
proposals, that "you may safely entrust to local bodies 
powers which would be mischievous and dangerous in the 
hands of the central Government." * This view is largely 
held by those of us who are not Socialists in the full sense 
of that word ; and in its practical adoption there must be 
a considerable extension of the functions of municipal 
government. In the meantime, the " lead " of the London 
County Council in organising its Works department is 
likely to be followed before long by most of the provincial 

♦ Speech at the " Eighty" Club, Nov. 19th, 1889. 
t Vide Appendix. 


It is perhaps not too much to say that the key to the 
future of municipal government is to be found in the urban 
land question. From taxation of the "unearned incre- 
ment" it will probably be found no very long step to 
municipal ownership of the land. With such examples as 
the corporate estate of Liverpool and the " Common Good " 
of Glasgow before their eyes, it is surprising that the Muni- 
cipalities should have allowed so much land to slip through 
their fingers ; as I have shown, these two cities have great 
reason to be thankful to the municipal forefathers who 
acquired and retained even so much of the ground on 
which they stand. An easier method of acquiring land for 
public purpose has only to be demanded by concerted 
municipal action in order to be conceded by Parliament ; 
and in the meantime it is interesting to note that when the 
Bradford Liberals formulated a programme on which to 
fight the last municipal elections, one of its points was that 
the lands which the Corporation possessed or might pur- 
chase should not be sold, but let on renewable leases. 

With a just reform of the incidence of taxation and the 
municipalisation of the land is opened a new vista of the 
possibilities of municipal action in dealing With social evils. 
If it is further remembered that in the present generation 
of our provincial cities valuable assets (in the shape of the 
various corporate undertakings) are accruing, of which only 
future generations can obtain the full benefit, we can look 
forward with some assurance, I think, to the time when 
by municipal work and wealth all the worst ills of great 
cities can be removed. 



The action of Municipalities in relation to the labour they 
employ has of recent years been hardly less important 
than theh: work for the social welfare generally. I think 
it right, therefore, to append some information as to the 
poUcy of these six great Municipalities regarded from this 
point of view — ^information gained for the most part from 
the local Trades Councils. 


I have already had occasion to speak of the improve- 
ment effected by the Corporation in the lot of the gas- 

In March, 1893, it was proposed in the Council "that 
it be an instruction to the several Committees of the 
Council, that, commencing with the first full week in 
April, the maximum hours worked by Corporation 
employes (to constitute a week), shall not exceed fifty- 
three; each week to be separate and distinct, and not 
based on any given average number of weeks. All time 
worked in excess of the above shall be considered as over- 
time, and shall be paid for at not less than time and 
a quarter. The above regulation shall only apply to 
* See page 5. 



employ^ in receipt of less than ^^150 per annum." To 
this an amendment was carried, referring the question to 
the General Purposes Committee, with instructions to 
confer upon it with the other Committees. 

As the result, a report was prepared, which showed that 
the establishment of a fifty-three hours' working week 
would entail an additional annual expenditure out of the 
rates of ;^3o,626, 5s. 2d., and a capital expenditure of 
;^2 6,000. The Committee were of opinion that "the 
conditions of employment of the servants and work-people 
under the Corporation, having regard to their hours, duties, 
wages, holidays, allowances, and cost of living, will 
compare favourably with those of the employes of other 
Corporations or other employers of the same class of 
labour." They further reported that, owing to the varied 
nature of the work done, the adoption of a uniform work- 
ing week of fifty-three hours, if not impracticable, would 
be detrimental to the public service, and would entail an 
unjustifiable burden upon the ratepayers. These con- 
clusions were accepted by the Corporation. 

Appended to the report of the Committee were returns 
giving particulars of hours, wages, and pensions. Unfor- 
timately these particulars were not classified in any way, 
but it can be stated that, according to these returns, in 
comparatively few cases did the hours exceed sixty per 
week, and in many they were under fifty-three, that from 
three to twelve days' holiday during the year were given 
and paid for, and that overtime was generally paid for at 
the rate of time and a quarter or time and a half. There 
were eighty-two persons drawing pensions from the City 
funds entirely,.to the aggregate amount of ;^3840, 14s. i id. 
per annum. One hundred and fourteen persons were in 


receipt of pensions from funds to which they had them- 
selves contributed, amounting to £65^2, 3s. 8d. 

By the Birmingham Trades Council I am informed that 
the Corporation, " generally speaking, treat their employes 
fairly well." The Committees are always ready to meet 
any men who may have a grievance which cannot be 
settled by their superintendent or foreman, and it is 
generally settled satisfactorily. A " fair contracts " clause 
has been passed and is inserted in all contracts. The 
Corporation does all such work as paving and cleaning the 
streets, without the intervention of contractors. 


The Manchester Corporation has in its service 6837 
employes, receiving in salaries and wages ;^469,845 per 
annum. Of this number nearly a fourth are employed 
at the gasworks. A Committee has recently been en- 
gaged in preparing a scheme of "compulsory thrift," 
compulsory, that is, on all who enter the service of 
the Corporation in the future. The Council was led to 
take up the subject by the frequency with which attention 
was called to cases in which its employes died leaving 
wives and families destitute. In some cases they had 
saved nothing at all from earnings, which, whether small 
or large, were always regular ; in other cases, their savings 
had been unfortunately invested. On various occasions 
the Corporation, ignoring the illegality of such action, 
had voted grants of money to the widows and orphans. 
There was constantly recurring, too, the difficulty which 
every public body is confronted with — the treatment of 
men too old to earn their wages, who, if discharged, 
would at once become a burden to the rates. 


These considerations, the Corporation thought, justified 
it in framing a scheme for superannuation which should 
be compulsory on every official and every workman who 
might hereafter enter the municipal service. But when 
the scheme went before a Committee of the House of 
Lords " that blessed word compulsion " created difficulties. 
So the Corporation, taking another leaf out of the book 
of the London County Council, made an application 
to Parliament for ''enabling powers for the Corporation 
to frame a scheme, and to use compulsion or otherwise 
as they might decide." As now in force, the scheme is 
only compulsory on all new employ^ receiving not less 
than 30s. per week, who are required to contribute to 
the fund not less than 3f per cent, of their salaries or 
wages, the Corporation at the same time contributing 
I J per cent. An account is kept in favour of each con- 
tributor, who, so long as he continues in the service of 
the Corporation, has no power to withdraw or alienate 
the amount standing to his credit But there is no for- 
feiture except for dishonesty. On reaching the age of 
65, or on becoming incapacitated for his work, the con- 
tributor is entitled to receive the amount, plus 4 per 
cent, compound interest. In the event of death, it goes, 
of course, to his representative. So far, the scheme has 
been only moderately successful. It came into opera- 
tion on October i, 1892, and by the end of March 1894, 
1587 employes were contributing — voluntarily contribut- 
ing with the exception of a few new employes. They 
included heads of departments and street sweepers, fore- 
men and labourers. 

On the whole, the relations existing between the Muni- 
cipality and its employes are, I am told by the Secretary 


of the Manchester Trades Council, "fairly satisfactory." 
In March 1891, the Corporation decided to insert in 
all its contracts a "fair wages" clause, which has so 
far given general satisfaction. On the other hand, the 
Corporation has shown little disposition to follow in the 
footsteps of the London County Council in dispensing 
with the services of the contractor and doing its own work. 
If the success of the London experiment continues, how- 
ever, I do not suppose, from the spirit which is dominating 
its policy, that the Manchester Corporation will be long 
in taking to heart the lesson, even though, as in the case 
of " Betterment," it has been given her by the metropolis. 


The most imfavourable report comes from Liverpool. 
The Council adopted a " fair wages " clause, but it applies 
only to annual contracts, and the definition of fair wages 
as " equivalent or approximate " to what is considered the 
standard rate is deemed unsatisfactory by the Trades 
Council. The Trades Council makes two other serious 
complaints against the Corporation. First, where, as in 
the building trades of the district, the recognised hours of 
work are 50 per week in the summer and 47 J in the 
winter, they are 54 in the Corporate service. As the 
result of this difference. Trade Unionists belonging to this 
industry cannot obtain employment under the Corporation. 
Second, the Corporation sometimes send contracts away 
from the city to firms elsewhere, who tender under the 
prices of Liverpool firms paying a fair or Trade Union 
rate of wages. 

These complaints came before the Council at a meeting 
on July 4, 1894, on the receipt of a letter of protest from 


the Trades Council. The Town Qerk then said that 
" he had never had an instance proved to him of violation 
of contract by the Liverpool contractors, and the letter 
was 'taken as read.' " 


Mr A. J. Hunter, the Secretary of the Glasgow United 
Trades Council, informs me that plumbers, joiners, 
masons, paviors, scavengers, ''and all workers of that 
sort," are paid the standard rate of wages, and work the 
same hours as other workmen. Some years ago the gas 
workers, who were working twelve hours a day, felt them- 
selves strongly organised enough to demand a reduction 
of hours. The Gas Committee, recognising the excep- 
tional nature of the work, turned the 24 hours into three 
shifts of 8 hours each without making any reduction in 

On the subject of contracts, Mr Hunter writes : — " We 
are in rather a peculiar position. You may not under- 
stand that in matters anent the gas, police, and statute 
labour, we are called the Police Commissioners, and meet 
every fortnight as Police Commissioners. Some time ago 
the Labour members in the Council (alas, we are few !) 
managed to get such a clause introduced. Only last week 
the Statute Labour Committee accepted estimates for 
bridge over the Clyde — such a clause is in the contract 
Then the Water Commissioners, the Markets Trust, the 
City Improvements, Parks and Halls Committees — 
although identically the same body — meet fortnightly 
under the name of the Town Council, ... It was pro- 

* As to recent action of the Municipality in respect to tramway 
workers refer to page 66. 


posed to this body also to adopt such a clause, and after 
a good deal of hard fighting it was agreed to wait till it 
was seen how the matter worked under the Police Com- 


In Bradford all sewerage, paving and street work generally 
is carried out by employ^ of the Corporation without the 
intervention of a contractor. They receive wages varying 
from 2 OS. for sweepers, to 28s. for paviors, eight hours 
being the working day, with the exception of carters, who 
(including the time spent in the stables) work 63J per 
week. Small building alterations have also been executed 
by the Corporation's own workmen. "In the first 
instance," writes an official expert on the subject, "the 
work may cost slightly more than if let by contract, but 
in the long run, in my opinion, it is much cheaper, as the 
work is better done and only material of a first-class 
quality is used. In some cases the work has actually cost 
less than by contract." 


Mr O. Connellan, the Secretary of the Leeds Trades 
Council, writes : — 

" As regards the attitude of the Corporation * towards 
Labour as illustrated by its contracts and the wages and 
hours of its own employes ' I may say that the Corporation 
has shown some improvement in this respect of late years, 
but it is not so much due to the goodwill of the Council 
as to the efforts of organised labour, assisted by public 
opinion. The employes of the Corporation gasworks are, 
with some few exceptions, on the eight hours' system at 


a fair wage. This, however, was only secured after a 
strike, culminating in a riot {1890). The Corporation 
have for the last ten months had possession of the tram- 
ways, and during that time the hours of the whole of the 
tramway employ^ have been considerably reduced and 
rate of pay increased. . . . With reference to Corporation 
coiltracts, after many years of agitation, we have succeeded 
in getting adopted a code of regulations, copy of which 
I enclose. In spite of the vigilance of the trades unionists 
the Corporation are very lax in carrying out the regulations 
they have adopted, and it will be a matter of time and 
patience on our part, I expect, before we see them strictly 

The regulations to which Mr Connellan refers were 
adopted in October. The two most important are as 
follows : — 

(i) The Contractor shall pay all workmen employed 
by him wages, and wages for overtime respect- 
ively, at rates not less than the standard rate of 
wages in each branch of the trade recognised 
in the district where the work or any part of it 
may be done. 
(2) The Contractor shall observe and cause to be 
observed by such workmen, hours of labour not 
greater than the hours of labour — and also the 
conditions of labour — usually observed in each 
district, other than any condition that union men 
only shall be employed. 



Table A. — The- Municipalities and Health, 

PopalaUon of 



to the 

dte f^ 



Birmingham . 
Liverpool . . 
Glasgow . . 
Bradford . . 
Leeds . . . 









22 'O 




* Baths are now in coarse of erection. 

Table B. — The Municipalities and Education. 


on Technical 


on Libraries and 
Art Galleries, &c 

Number of Books 
in Libraries. 

Birmingham . 
Manchester . . 
Liverpool . . . 
Glasgow . . . 
Bradford . . . 
Leeds .... 









n the Mitchell Library, which is for reference only. 


Table C. — Profits^ in 1893-94, on Municipal Undertakings, 




Total Net 





;f 35,817 

Manchester . 










Glasgow . . 





Bradford . . 





Leeds . . . 





In reference to this Table, it is to be remembered that in all cases 
profits are reckoned only after provision has been made for payment of 
interest on loans and re-paymetU of the principal, 

* The Livenool Gasworks are still owned by a Company. 

t Net loss after payment of nearly ;^ for public lamps, and over jfsSfOoo for 
Sinking Fund, &c. Since taking oyer the Gasworks in 1871 the Bradford Corpora^- 

Fnnd. Under twenty-four 

Table D. — Municipal Finance, 


Amount of 

Surplus of 

Rates in tne ^ 

Liverpool . 
Glasgow . 
Bradford . 
Leeds . . 

;f 2,079,517 






2/1 1 to 3/ioi 

2/9 to 3/4t 


3/7 to 4/9 

* Average over whole municipal area. 

t Divided between owner and occupier, and graduated {according to amount of 


Allotments at Leeds, no. 

Art Gallery — at Birmingham, 17 ; 
at Manchester, 36 ; at Liver- 
pool, 58 ; at Glasgow, 76 ; at 
Bradford, 100; at Leeds, 118. 

Avery, Mr Alderman, 7. 


"Back-to-back" houses — ^Attempts 
to prohibit them at Bradford, 
96 ; ^Prohibition of, at Leeds, 

Bars and Toll-gates at Leeds, 

Baths and Wash-houses — at Bir- 
mingham, 15 ; at Manchester, 
27 ; at Liverpool, 43, 46 ; at 
Glasgow, 73 ; at Bradford, 98 ; 
at Leeds, 115. 
" Betterment," Examples of, at 
Bradford, 94; Manchester and 
Bradford's support of the Prin- 
ciple of, Z04, 127. 
Birmingham, The battle for its 
Charter, 2; Early Difficulties 
of the Corporation, 3 ; The 
•*Chamberlain_Era" at, 3. 
Boundaries, Extension of Muni- 
cipal — of Birmingham, 20; of 
Manchester, 38, 41 ; of Liver- 
pool, 62 ; of Glasgow, 79, 84 ; 
of Bradford, ySw/»0/'« 89. 
Bradford, Incorporation of, 86; 
Opposition to, its Charter, 87 ; 
Slow growth of its Municipal 

Spirit, 87; What it owes to 
Municipsd action, 86, 103; 
Conditioning-House at, loi. 
Brown, Mr Ford Madox, R. A. , 37. 

Cameron, Dr J. Spottiswoode. 
Medical Officer of Health, 
Leeds, 115 ; His report on the 
health of Leeds, 115, z 16. 

Chamberlain, Mr Joseph, and 
Birmingham's Municipal work, 
2-zz ; His Speech on its Im- 
provement Scheme, zo. 

Chamberlain Square, Birmingham, 

Civic Patriotism, Examples of, 22, 

Clyde, Purification of, 7Z. 

Claerwen and Elan, Birmingham's 
Water Supply from, 9. 

Clare, Mr Harcourt E., Deputy 
Town Clerk of Liverpool, 

"Common Good," Glasgow's, 65, 

Concerts, Municipal — at Glasgow, 
76 ; at Newcastle - on - Tyne, 
footnote 76. 

Conditioning-House at Bradford, 

Convalescent Homes, Municipal, 
99. 116. 

Contracts, Conditions as to Muni- 
cipal, Appendix I., Z3a 

Corporate Estate of Liverpool, 43, 
6z ; of Glasgow, 8z. 




Dalmarnock Sewage Works, 
Glasgow. 71. 

Death-rate. Dedine in— «t Birming- 
ham. 16 ; at Liverpool, 55 ; at 
Ghtfgow. Bs ; at Bradford, 86u 

Death-rate of Insanitary Areas, la. 

^ a9.SS.69. .. ,_. ^ 
Dust " Destructors at Leeds, 116. 
Dwellings, Municipal Ownership of 
— at Birmingham. 19 ; at Man- 
chester, 2p *, at Liverpool, 54 ; 
at Glasgow, 71. 


Education, Mimicipalities and, 139. 

Elan and Claerwen, Birmingham's 
Water Supply from, 9. 

Electric Uffhtmg— at Birmingham, 
6 ; at Liverpool, 52 ; at Leeds, 

Municipalisation of— at Man- 
chester, 3a ; at Glasgow, 79 ; 
at Bradibrd, 91. 


Farms, Manchester's Municipal, 31. 

Finlay, Mr R. B., Q.C., 124. 

Finance, Municipal — of Birming- 
ham, 19-22 ; of Manchester, 
30-41 ; of Liverpool, 61 ; of 
Glasgow, 81 ; of Bradford, 
102-104 '• Appendix II., 14a 

Gas, Municipalisation of— at Bir- 
mingham, 3-6 ; at Manchester, 
03 ; at Glasgow, 79 ; at Bmd- 
lord, 90 ; at Leeds, jt» <* 

Private Owner^l^ of, at 

Liverpool, 51. 

Municipal Profits on, 140. 

Gilbert, Sir John, R.A., 59. 

Glasgow, Peculiar Features of 
Municipal Life of, 65 ; Over- 
crowding at, 69 ; Lack of Free 
Libraries at, 78. 


Halls, Municipal Ownership^of, at 

Glasgow, 75. 
Harwood, Sir J. J., 2c 
Health of Populous Towns, Royal 

Commission on, 28, 69,^86, 

Health, Municipalities and, 139. 
Hydraulic Power. Municipalisation 

of, at Manchester, 28. 


Improvements — at Birmingham, 
10-12 ; at Manchester, 29 ; at 
Glasgow, 69 ; at Bradford, 93- 
95; at Leeds, 1x4. 

Katrine, Loch, and Glasgow's 

Water Supply, 7a, 73. 
Kelvin, Lord, 79. 

Labour, Municipalities and, 5, 66, 

67, 112, Appendix I., 131. 
Laundries, Municipal, at Glasgow, 


Lectures, Municipal, at Liverpool, 

Leeds, Long Mumcipal History of, 
iQj; Municipal Achievements 
^dfrin thirty years, 107; Con- 
ferment of the title of City 
upon, zao. 

Libraries— at Birmingham, z6; at 
Manchester, 36 ; at Liverpool, 
56; at Glasgow, 78; at Brad- 
ford, 99; at Leeds, 117. 

Libraries' Rate, Voluntary Increase 
of— at Birmingham, 17; at 
Bradford, 100. 

Lister, Mr S. C. (now Lord 
Masham), and Lister Park, 
Bradford, 98. 



Liverpool, Antiquity of Municipal 

Government of, 42; Civic 

Future of, 63. 
Lodging-houses, Municipal, at 

Glasgow, 68. 
London compared with Provincial 

Cities, 126. 
London County Council, Influence 

of, on other Municipalities, 128. 


Manchester, Incorporation of, 25. 

Manchester Ship Canal and the 
Municipality, 23-25. 

Markets, Municipal — at Birming- 
ham, 15 ; at Manchester, 39 ; 
at Liverpool, 43, 47; at Glas- 
gow, 80; at Bradford, 93; at 
Leeds, 113. Profits on, 140, 

Martineau, Sir Thomas, 9. 

*• Mayors' Library," The, at Brad- 
ford, zoa 

Morley, Mr John, M.P., 128. 

Municipal Institutions. See under 
different headings. Art Galleries, 
Baths, Conditioning-House, 
Convalescent Homes, Dwell- 
ings, Electric Lighting, Farms, 
Gas, Halls, Libraries and 
Reading-rooms, Lodging- 

houses, Markets, Museums, 
Parks and Recreation Grounds, 
Schools, Town Hall, Tram- 
ways, Water, &c. 

Museums, Municipal, 56, jt^ 117. 

Nautical School, Municipal, at 
Liverpool, 6a 

Newlands, Mr James, Borough 
Engineer of Liverpool, 1848, 48. 

Parks and Recreation Grounds — at 
Birmingham, 14 ; at Manches- 
ter, 38 ; at Liverpool, 45 ; at 
Glasgow, 74 ; at Bradford, 98 ; 
at Leeds, 108-110. Music in, 
75, footnote 76, 99, 109. 

People's Palace, Municipal, at Glas- 
w, 78. 

Picton, Sir James, 56. 
PoweU Williams, Mr, M.P., 

Rates, Division of, between Owner 
and Occupier at Glasgow, 81. 

Rates, see Finance. 

Refuse, disposal of, 31, iz6. 

Royal Birmingham Society of 
Artists and Municipal Exhibi- 
tions, 18. 

St George's Hall, Liverpool, 61. 
Schools, Art and Technical, 17, 34, 

Sefton, Lord, 46. 

Sewage, Disposal of, 30, 72, 96, 117. 
Shops Hours Act, Enforcement of, 

at Glasgow, 81. 
Smoke Evil, Municipalities and the, 


Technical Education, Municipal 
Grants in Aid of —at Manches- 
ter, 34; at Liverpool, 60; at 
Bradford, loi ; at Leeds, 119. 

Thirlnfiere Lake, Manchester's 
Water Supply from, 25-27. 

Town Hall and Municipal Offices 
— at Manchester, 37 ; at Brad- 
ford, 95 ; at Leeds, 117. 

Tramways, Municipal Ownership 
of, 13. 39. 92. 

Tram Service, Municipalisation of 
—at Glasgow, 65 ; at Leeds, iii. 


^', Lake, and the Liverpool 
ater Supply, 5a 


Walker, Sir A. B,, 56, 59. 

Water, Mimicipalisation of — at 
Birmingham, 6-9; at Man- 
chester, 25-27; at Liverpool, 
[; at Gla 

49-51; at Crlasgow, 72; at 
Bradford, 88-90; at Leeds, 
106. Profits on, 140. 



































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guardian of the Laudian relics and mss. at Oxford, has been abla to throw new 
light on various episodes in hb career. 

Mrs. Oliphant THOMAS CHALMERS. By Mrs. Oliphant. 
With a Portrait, Second Edition, Crown Svo. p, 6d, 

[Leaders of Religion, 

Lock. JOHN KEBLE. By Walter Lock, Sub-Warden of 
Keble College. IVitA a Portrait, Seventh Edition, Crown %vo. 
3 J. 6d, [Leaders of Religion, 

General Literature 

W. M. Flindbrs Petkie,D.C.L. With 120 Illustrations. Crown 
Svo. 3^. 6d, 
A book which deals with a subject which has never yet been seriously treatad. 

MEssRa Methuen's List 7 

Pliiiders Petrie. EGYPTIAN TALES. Edited by W. M. 
Flinders Pstrie. Illustrated by Tristram Ellis. Crown Svo. 

A selection of the ancient tales of 'Egypt, edited fircnn original soorces, and of great 
importance as illustrating the life and society of ancient Egypt. 

Ouida. ESSAYS by OuiDA. Crown Zvo. 6s. 
This volume contains the following articles : — 


O Beati Insipientes 1 

Cities of Italy. 

The Failure of Christianity. 

The Sins of Society. 

The Passbg of PhilomeL 

The Italy of To-day. 

The Blind Guides of Italy. 

L'Uomo Fatale. 

The New Woman. 

Death and Pity. 



Some Fallacies of Sdence. 

Female Suffrage. 


The State as an Immoral Factor. 

The Penalties of a Well-Known Name. 

Oliphant. THE FRENCH RIVIERA. By Mrs. Oliphant 
and F. R. Oliphant. With Illustrations and Maps. Crown Svo, 

A volume dealing with the French Riviera from Toulon to Mentone. Without fill- 
ing within the guide-book category, the book will supply some useful practical 
information, while occupying itself chiefly with descriptive and historical matter. 
A special feature will be the attention directed to those portions of the Riviera, 
which, though full of interest and easily accessible from many well-frequented 
spots, are generally left unvisited by English travellers, such as the Maures 
Mountains and the St. Tropes district, the country lying between Cannes, Grasse 
and the Var, and the magnificent valleys behind Nice. There will be several 
<»ig^nal illustrations. 

Shedlock. THE PIANOFORTE SONATA: Its Origin and 
Development By J. S. Shbdlock. Crown $zw. Ss, 
This is a practical and not unduly technical account of the Sonata treated histori- 
cally. It contains several novel features, and an account of various works little 
known to the English public. 

Dixon. A PRIMER OF TENNYSON. By W. M. Dixon, 
M.A., Professor of English Literature at Mason College. Fcap, Szv. 
ij. 6d. 
This book consists of (x) a succinct but complete biography of Lord Tennyson; 
(a) an account of the volumes published by him in chronological order, dealing with 
the more important poems separately ; (3) a concise criticism of Tennyson in his 
various aspecte as lyrist, dramatist, and represenutive poet of his day; (4) • 
bibliography. Such a complete book on such a subject, and at soch a moderate 
price, should find a host of readers. 

8 Messrs. Methuen*s List 

THE christian YEAR. By John Keble. With an Intro- 
duction and Notes by W Lock, M. A. , Sab- Warden of Keble College, 
Author of *The Life of John Keble.' Illustrated by R. Anning 
Bell. Fcap, 8w. y, 6d, 

A charming edition of a famous book, finely iUtutrmtod and printed in blade and red, 
uniform with the ' Imitadon of Christ' 

Theobald. INSECT LIFE. By F. W. Theobald, M.A. 
Illustrated. Crown Svo. 2s, 6d, [Univ, Extension Series, 

English Classics 

Edited by W. K Henlby. 

Messrs. Methnen propose to publish, under this title, a series of the masterpieces of 
the English tongue, which, while well within the reach of the average buyer, shall 
be at once an ornament to the shelf of him that owns, and a delight to the eye of 
him that reads. 

The series, of which Mr. William Ernest Henley is the general editor, will confine 
itself to no single period or department of literature. Poetry, fiction, drama, 
biography, autobiography, letters, essays— in all these fields is the material of 
many goodly volumes. 

The books, which are designed and printed by Messrs. Constable, will be issued in 
two editions— (j) A small edition, on the finest Japanese vellum, demy 8vo, axx. a 
volume nett; (a) The popular edition on laid paper, crown 8vo, buckram, 3J. 6d. a 

The following are some notices which have appeared on ' TRISTRAM 
SHANDY/ the first volume of the series : — 

* Very dainty volumes are these ; the paper, type, and light green binding are all 

very agreeable to the eye. '* Simplex mundidis" b the phrase that might be 
applied to them. So far as we know, Sterne's famous work has never appeared in 
a guise more attractive to the connoisseur than this.' — Globe, 

* The book is excellently printed by Messrs. Constable on good paper, and being 

divided into two volumes, is light and handy without Jacking the dignity of a 
classic' — Manchester Guardian, 

' This new edition of a great classic might make an honourable appearance in any 
library in the world. Printed by Constable on laid paper, bound in most artistic 
and restful-looking fig-green buckram, with a frontispiece portrait and an introduce 
tion by Mr. Charles Whibley, the book might well be issued at three times its 
present price.'— /n*A Independent, 

'Cheap and comely ; a very agreeable t^iaatu*— Saturday Review. 

'A real acquisition to the \x\itaayJ' —Birmingham PosU 

Messrs. Methuen*s List 9 

THE comedies OF WILLIAM CONGREVE. With an 
Introduction by-G. S. Stkebt, ftnd a Portrait. 2 vols, 
25 copies on Japanese paper. 

AND SANDERSON. By Izaak Walton, With an Introduction 
by Vernon Blackburn, and a Portrait. 
25 copies on Japanese paper. 

By James Morier. With an Introduction by E. S. Browne, M. A. 
25 copies on Japanese paper. 

THE POEMS OF ROBERT BURNS. With an Introduction 
by W. £. Henley, and a Portrait. 2 vols, 
30 copies on Japanese paper. 

Johnson, LL.D. With an Introduction by John Hepburn 
Millar, and a Portrait. 3 vols. 
30 copies on Japanese paper. 

Classical Translations 

Crown 2fD0, Finely printed and bound in blue buckram, 

SOPHOCLES— Electra and Ajax. Translated by E. D. A 
Morshead, M.A, late Scholar of New College, Oxford; Assistan 
Master at Winchester. 2j. 6d. 

TACITUS— Agricola and Germania. Translated by R. B. 
TowNSHEND, late Scholar of Trinity College, Cambridge. 2s. 6d. 

10 Messrs. Methuen's List 

IReto anD Vlecetit BookiS 

Endyard Kipling. BARRACKROOM BALLADS; And 

Other Verses. By Rudyakd Kipling. Seventh Edition. Crcwn 

8tv. ts, 

A Spedal Presentation Edition, bound in white buckram, with 

extra gilt ornament 71. 6d, 

* Mr. Kipling's vene is strong, Tivid, full of character. . . . Unmistakable genius 
rings in every line.'-— 7Y«m». 

'The disreputable lingo of Cockavne is henceforth justified bdbre the world ; for a 
man of i^enius has taken it in hand, and has shown, beyond all cavilling, diat in 
its way it also is a medium fat literature. You are grateful, and yon say^ to 
yourself, half in envy and half in admiration : " Here is a book ; here, or one is a 
Dutchman, is one of the books of the year." *— National Observer. 

* " Barrack-Room Ballads " conuins some of the best work that Mr. Kipling has 
ever done, which is saying a good deal. " Fnnj>Wuzzy," '*Gunga Din,'^ and 
" Tommy," are, in our opmion, altogether superior to anything of the kind that 
English literature has hitherto produced.'— '^/A^iMnfiit. 

'These ballads are as wonderful in their descriptive power as they are vigorous in 
their dramatic force. There are few ballads in the English language more 
stirring than "The Ballad of East and West," worthy to stand by the Border 
ballads of Scott'— ^/#c/a/^. 

'The ballads teem with imagination, they palpitate with emotion. We read them 
with laughter and tears ; the metres throb in our pulses, the cunningly ordered 
words tingle with life ; and if this be not poetry, what i&V— Poll Mall GoMette. 

Henley. LYRA HEROIC A : An Anthology selected from the 
best English Verse of the i6th, 17th, i8th, and 19th Centuries. By 
William Ernest Henley, Author of 'A Book of Verse,* 'Views 
and Reviews,' etc. Crown Svo, Stamped ^It buckram^ gilt toPf 
edges uncut, 6s, 

' Mr. Henley has brought to the task of selection an instinct alike for poetry and for 
chivalry which seems to us quite wonderftdly, and even unerringly, right.* — 


translated by Jane Barlow, Author of < Irish Idylls/ and pictured 
by F. D. Bedford. Smalt 4I0, 6s, net. 

This is a new version of a famous old fable. Mbs Barlow, whose brilliant volume 
of 'Irish Idylls ' has gained her a wide reputation, has told the story in. spirited 
flowing verse, and Mr. Bedford's numerous illustrations and ornaments are as 
spirited as the verse they picture. 

Messrs. Methuen's List ii 

Graham R. Tomson. With Frontispiece by A. Tomson. Fcap, 

An edition on hand-made paper, limited to 50 copies, los. 6d. net. 

* Mrs. Tomson holds perhaps the very highest rank among poetesses of English birth. 

This selection will help her reputation.'— jPZacA and IVhite. 

Ibsen. BRAND. A Drama by Henrik Ibsen. Translated by 

William Wilson. Crown Svo. Second Edition. 3^. (>d, 

*The greatest world-poem of the nineteenth century next to "Faust." "Brand" 
will have an astonishing interest for Englishmen. It is in the same set with 
" A^memnon," with " Lear," with the literature that we now instinctively regard 
as high and holy.' — Daily Chronicle, 

" a" GREEN BAYS : Verses and Parodies. By " Q.," Author 

of 'Dead Man's Rock,' etc. Second Edition. Fcap. %vo. 3^. 6^. 

'The verses display a rare and versatile gift of parody, great command of metre, and 
a very pretty turn of humour.' — Times. 

"A.G." VERSES TO ORDER. By«A.G." Cr.Zvo. 2s. 6d. 

A small volume of verse by a writer whose initials are well known to Oxford men. 
'A capital specimen of light academic poetry. These verses are very bright and 
engaging, easy and sufficiently witty.— .S/. James's Gasette. 

Hosken. VERSES BY THE WAY. By J. D. Hosken. 

Crown Szfo. 5^. 

A small edition on hand-made paper. Price 12s, 6d. net, 

A Volume of Lyrics and Sonnets by J. D. Hosken, the Postman Poet. Q, the 
Author of *The Splendid Spur,' writes a critical and biographical intro- 
duction. < 

Gala CRICKET SONGS. By Norman Gale. Crown Svo. 
Linen, 2s. 6d, 
Also a limited edition on hand-made paper. Demy Svo. los. 6d. 

* They are wrung out of the excitement of the moment, and palpitate with the spirit 

of the game.'— .S/ar. 
' As healthy as they are spirited, and ought to have a great success.'— TVm^j. 

* Simple, manly, and humorous. Every cricketer should buy t)ic\iQo\i.*—lVestminster 

Gazette. * Cricket has never known such a singer.'— Crtic^/. 

Langbridge, BALLADS OF THE BRAVE : Poems of Chivalry, 

Enterprise, Courage, and Constancy, from the Earliest Times to the 

Present Day. Edited, with Notes, by Rev. F. Langbridge. 

Crown %vo. Buckram 31. 6d. School Edition, zs. 6d. 

*A very happy conception happily carried out. These " Ballads of the Brave" are 
intended to suit the real tastes of boys, and will suit the taste of the great majority.' 
—Spectator. * The book is full of splendid things.'— »^^«. 

13 Messrs. Mbthuen's List 

English Classics 

Edited by W. E. Hbnlsy. 

MflMM. Metbow •!• pablisbtog, uoder this title, a teries of the attsierpieoes of the 
English toogue, whichi while well within the rea^ of the average bnyer, shall be 
at ooce an ornament to the shelf of him that owns, and a delight to the eye of 
him that reads. 

The series, of which Mr. William Ernest Henley is the general editor, will confine 
itself to no single period or department of literatnre. Poetry, fiction, drama, 
biography, autobiography, letters, essays— in all these fields is the material of 
many goodly volumes. 

The boolu, which are designed and printed by Messrs. ConsUble, are issued in two 
editions-— (t) A small edition, on the finest Japanese vellum, demv 8vo, six. a 
volume nett ; (a) the popular edition on laid paper, crown 8vo, y. 6a, a, volume. 

By Lawrence Sterne. With an Introduction by Charles 
Whibley, and a Portrait 2 vols, Js. 
6o copies on Japanese paper. 42/. 

* Very dainty volumes are these : the paper, type and light green binding are all 
very agreeable to the eye. ''Simplex muiKntiis " is the phrase that might be 
applied to them. So (ar as we Icnow^ Sterne's famous work has never appeured in 
a guise more attractive to the connoisseur than thu.*-^loAe. 

'The book is excellently printed by Messrs. Constable on good paper, and being 
divided into two volumes, is light and handy without lacking the dignity of a 
cXussic'—MoMcAgster GnafxHatt. 

'This new edition of a great classic might make an honotirable appearance in any 
libnuy in t!ie world. Printed by Consuble on laid ^per, bound in most artistic 
and restful-looking fig-green buckram, with a frontispiece portrait and an introduce 
tion by Mr. Charles Whibley, the book might well be issued at three times its 
present price.'— /fwA ImU^itidemi. 

'Cneap and comely; a very agreeable tditioa^'^SaimrdMy Rtmtw* 

' A real acquisition to the \i\imrf*— Birmingham Post, 


Plindors Petrie. A HISTORY OF EGYPT, from the 
Earliest Times to the Hyksos. By W. M. Flinders Petrie, 
D. C L. , Professor of Egyptology at University College. Fully Illus- 
trated, Crown %vo, ts, 

'An important contribution to scientific %tvAy. 'Scoisfnan, 

' A history written in the spirit of scientific precision so worthily represented by Dr. 
Petrie and his school cannot but promote sound and accurate study, and supply a 
vacant place in the English literature of Egyprtology.'— TYm^j. 

Flinders Petrie. TELL EL AMARNA. By W. M. Flinders 
Petrie, d.CL. With chapters by Professor A H. Sayce, D.D.; 
F. Ll. Griffith, F.S.A; and F. C, J. Spurrbll, F.G.S. With 
numeroas coloured illustrations. Royal /^o. 2Qr. net. 

Messrs. Methuen's List 13 

Clark. THE COLLEGES OF OXFORD: Their History and 
their Traditions. By Members of the University. Edited by A, 
Clark, M.A., Fellow and Tutor of Lincoln Collie. Svo, i2s. 6d. 

* Whether the reader approaches the hook as a patriotic member of a colle^, as an 

antiquar]r> or as a student of the organic growth ci college foondation, it will amply 
reward his attention.' — Times,^ 
' A delightful book, learned and lively.' — Acadtmy, 

* A work which will certainly be appealed to for many years as the standard book on 

the Colleges of Oxford.'— ^M«m«mi». 

REPUBLIC. By F. T. Perrens. Translated by Hannah 
Lynch. In Three Volumes. Vol, /. %w>, 12s, 6d, 

This is f translation from the French of the best history of Florence in existence. 
This volume covers a^ period of profound interest — political and literary — and 
is written with great vivacity. 

'This is a standard book by an honest and intelligent hist<Mrian, who has deserved 
well of his countrymen,,and of all who are interested in Italian history.' — Jtfaw- 
chester Guardian, 

Browning. GUELPHSAND GHIBELLINES: A Short History 
of Mediaeval Italy, A.D. 1250-1409. By Oscar Browning, Fellow 
and Tutor of King's College, Cambridge. Second Edition, Crown 
Svo, Ss, 

' A very able book. *— Westmtnstgr Gazette. 

'A vivid picture of mediaeval lx»Xy*— Standard, 

O'Chrady. THE STORY OF IRELAND. By Standish 
O'Grady, Author of * Finn and his Companions.* Cr, %vo, 2s. 6d. 

' Novel and very fascinating history. Wonderfully alluring.' — Cori Examiner, 

* Most delightful, most stimulating. ^ Its racy humour, its original imaginings, its 

perfectly unique history, make it one of the freshest, breeziest volumes.' — 
Methodist Times. 
'A survey at once graphic, acute, and quaintly written.' — Times, 

Maiden. ENGLISH RECORDS. A Companion to. the 

History of England. ByH. E. Malden, M.A. Crown Svo, ss, 6d, 

A book which aims at concentraUng information upon dates, genealo^, officials, 

constitutional documents, etc., which is usually found scattered in different 



OollingWOOd. JOHN RUSKIN : His Life and Work. By 

W. G. CoLLiNGWOOD, M.A., Editor of Mr. Ruskin*s Poems. 

2 vols, Svo, 32^. Second Edition, 

This important work is written by Mr. CoUingwood, who has been for some ftan 
Mr. Ruskln's private secretary, and who has had nniquA advantages in obtainbg 

14 Messrs. Methuen's List 

■uiteriilf for tUi book froa Mr. Raskin himself and from his friends. It contains 
a lar|po amoont of new nuuter, and of letters which have never been pablished, 
and IS, la fitct, a frUI and audioriutive biography of Mr. Ruskin. The book 
oootains numerooi portraits of Mr. Raskin, including a coloured one from a 
water<olour portrait by himself, and also 13 sketches, never before published, by 
Mr. Raskin aiid Mr. Arthur Severn. A bibliography is added. 

' No more magnificent volumes have been published for a long time. . . .'--Ttmes. 

'This most lovingly written and most profoundly interesting hoolc*— Daily News. 

' It is long since we have had a biography with such varied delights of substance 
and of form. Such a book is a pleasure for the day, and a joy for emr.'— Daily 

* Mr. Ruskin could not well have been more fortunate in his bioen^her.'— G^S^Ar. 

' A noble monument of a noble subject. One of the most beautuul books about one 
of the noblest lives of our century.' — Gla^gmv Herald. 

Waldfltdn. JOHN RUSKIN : a Study. By Charles Wald- 
STBIN, M. A., Fellow of Kxn^s College, Cambridge. With a Photo- 
gravure Portrait after Professor Hbrkomer. Post Svo. $s. 
Also 25 copies on Japanese paper. Dtmy Scv. 21s, 

'Ruskinites will no doubt arise and join battle with Mr. Waldstein, who, all the 
same has produced a remarkably fine piece of criticism, which is well worth read- 
ing for its own sake.' — da^^ow Herald. 

'A thoughtful, impartial, well-written critidsm of Ruskin's teaching, intended to 
separate what the author regards as valuable and permanent from what b transient 
and erroneous in the great master's writing.'— Z>4u/f CkronicU. 

GLADSTONE. By A. F. Robbins. Witk Portraits. Crown 

'The earlier years of Mr. Gladstone's political life stand out all the more finely, and 
leave a more enduring impression, because of the absolute truthfrilness and con- 
scientiousness with which the record has been penned.'— ^^i^^^w Herald. 

'Considerable Ubour and much skill of presentation have not been unworthily 
expended on this interesting work.' — Times. 

' Bv immense labour, guided by a competent knowledge of afiairs, he has given us a 
book which will be of permanent value to the student of political history. It is 
exhaustively indexed, and accompanied by three portraits. -—K^/b^'rv Pest. 

' Not only one of the most meritorious, but one ot the most interesting, biographical 
wrorks that have appeared on the subject of the ex-Premier. ... It furnishes a 
picture from many points original and striking ; it makes additions of value to the 
evidence on which we are entitled to estimate a great public character ; and it 
gives the reader's judgment exactly that degree of guidance which is the function 
of a calm, restrained, and judicious historian.' — Birmingham Daily Post, 

'A carefully-planned narrative, into which is woven a great deal of information. . . . 
It is pretty safe to predict that this volume will not onl^ be read but retained on 
library bookshelves as a useful book of reference.' — Datly News, 

LINGWOOD. By W. Clark Russell, Author of «The Wreck 
of the Grosvenor.' With lUostrations by F. Brangwyn. Second 
Edition. Crown Zvo, 6s, 
' A really good hoo\u*—Saiurday Review. 

' A most excellent and wholescxne book, which we should like to sec in the hands of 
every boy in the country.'— «S^^. Jamt^s Gaeette, 


Messrs. Methuen's List 15 

General Literature 

and Introductions. Edited by A. W. Hutton, M. A (Librarian of 
the Gladstone Library), and H. J. Cohen, M. A With Portraits. 
^0. Vols. IX, and X. I2s. 6d, each, 

Henley and Whibley. A BOOK OF EN<}LISH PROSE. 
Collected by W. E. Henley and Charles Whibley, Cr, Svo, 6s, 
Also 40 copies on Dutch paper. 21^. net. 
Also 15 copies on Japanese paper. 42s, net, 
*A unique volume of extracts — an art gallery of early ^xos&.'— Birmingham Post, 

* The book is delightfully got up, being printed by Messrs. Constable, who have 

evidently bestowed most loving care upon \t.'— Publisher^ Circular, 

* The anthology is one every lover of good writing and quxunt English will enjoy.' — 

* An admiiable companion to Mr. Henley's " Lyra Heroica.'" — Saturday Review. 

* Quite delightful. The choice made has been excellent, and the volume has been 

most admirably printed by Messrs. Constable. A greater treat for those not well 
acquainted with pre-Restoration prose could not be imagined.'— ^/Am<?MM. 

Wells. OXFORD AND OXFORD LIFE. By Members of 
the University. Edited by J. Wells, M.A., Fellow and Tutor of 
Wadham College. Crotvn Svo, 3J. 6d, 
This work contains an account of life at Oxford— intellectual, social, and religious— 
a careful estimate of necessary expenses, a review of recent changes, a statement 
of the present position of the University, and chapters on Women's Education, 
aids to study, and University Extension. 
' We congratulate Mr. Wells on the production of a readable and intelligent account 
of Oxford as it is at the present time, written by persons who are, with hardly an 
exception, possessed of a close acquaintance with the system and life of the 
University. —Aikenaum, 

Ohalmers Mitchell OUTLINES OF BIOLOGY. By P. 
Chalmers Mitchell, M.A, F.Z.S. Fully Illustrated, Crown 
Szfo, 6s, 
A text-book designed to cover the new Schedule issued by the Royal College of 
Physicians and Surgeons. 

ING. By W. M. Dixon, M.A. Crown Svo, js. 6d. 
A Popular Account of the poetry of the Century. 

* Scholarly in conception, and full of sound and suggestive criticism.' — Times, 

' The book is remarkable for freshness of thought expressed in graceful language.' — 
Manchester Examiner. 

Bowden. THE EXAMPLE OF BUDDHA: Being Quota- 
tions from Buddhist Literature for each Day in the Year. Compiled 
by E. M. BowDEN. With Preface by Sir Edwin Arnold. Third 
Edition, \6mo, zs, 6d. 

i6 Messrs. Mbthuen's List 


Georgb Masses. With 12 Cbloared Plates. Royal 8m. i8j. mt, 

'A work ouich fai Mlvanct of any book in tho langnago traiuiog of thb gvovp of 

crganiaou. It b indnpeosablo to ovary ttadent of the IfyxogMtnt. The 

coloured pletet deserve high praise for their accuracy and executtao.'~A«/ifrv. 

TION. By T. W. BUSHILL, a Profit Sharing Employer. With an 
Introduction by Skdlbt Taylor, Author of < Profit ShariDg between 
Capital and Labour.' CrcmH 8cw. ax. 6«/. 

M.A» Professor of Law at University College, LiverpooL Crown 

'The work is admirably done. Everything the average man will wish to know 
respecting the history and bearing of the subject he b likely to learn from Professor 
Jenks. He is told something of the origin of every form of the government undei 
which he Ilx'es and is rated, and may learn sufficient of the duties and powers of 
local bodies to enable hia to Uke an intelligent interest ia their work.'~lfV«lms 
Morning^ New, 

* Timely and admirable.'— >S'£»i!fNWii. 

* Mr. Jenks undertakes to give in a brief compass an accurate description of the 

public bodies and authorities by which we are surrounded, while just glancing 
here and there at their origin and historical continuity through the ages. A 
subject of much complexity is here judiciously summarised.'— i7a£(|r A«wr. 
' We can cordially recommend the book as giving an eaoellent outline in general 
terms of English local government.'— >S'«*«9/ Guardiam. 

Maiden. THE ENGLISH CITIZEN: His Rights and 
Duties, By H. £. Maldsn, M.A. Crown $00. is. 6d. 
A simple account of the privileges and duties of the English dtisen. 

John Beever. PRACTICAL FLY-FISHING, Founded on 
Nature, by John Bebver, late of the Thwaite House, Coniston. A 
New Edition, with a Memoir of the Author by W. G. Collingwood, 
M.A. Also additional Notes and a chapter on Cfaar-Fislung, by A 
and A. R. SEVERN. With a specially designed title-page. Crown 
Svo. 2s. 6d, 
A little book on Fly-fishing by an old friend of Mr. Ruskin. It has been out ot 
print for some time, and being still much in request, is now issued with a Memoir 
of the Author by W. G. Collingwood. 

the Right Hon. H. H. ASQUITH, M.P. By A. W, Hdtton, 
M.A Crown SzfO. is. 6d. 

Messrs. Methuen's LIst 17 


THE OLD TESTAMENT. By S. R. Driver, D.D., Canon of 
Christ Church, Regius Professor ol Hebrew in the University of 
Oxford. Crown %vo. 6s, 
'A veloome comiaiuon to the author's famous * Introduction.' No man can read these 
discourses without feeling that Dr. Driver is fully alive to the deeper teachinx of 
the Old Testament'— <;MKr<^za«. 

Biographical, Descriptive, and Critical Studies. By T. K. Cheynb, 
D.D., Oriel Professor of the Interpretation of Holy Scripture at 
Oxford. Large crown Svo. p. Sd. 
This important book is a historical sketch of O.T. Criticism in the form of biographi- 
cal studies from the days of Eichhom to those of Driver and Robertson Smith. 
It is the only book of its kind in English. 

* The volume is one of great interest and value. It displays all the author's well- 

known ability and learning, and its opportune publication has laid all students of 
theology, and specially of Bible criticism, under weighty obligation. '—J'^vfrmoM. 

* A very learned and instructive work.' — TimiS. 

Prior. CAMBRIDGE SERMONS. Edited by C. H. Prior, 
M. A., Fellow and Tutor of Pembroke College. Crovun Svo. 6s. 
A volume of sermons preached before the University of Cambridge by various 
preachers, including the Archbishop of Canterbury and Bishop Westcott. 

* A representative collection. Bishop Westcott's is a noble sermon.'— ^wan/rVm. 

* Full of thoughtfulness and dignity, — Record. 

Bbbching, M.A., Rector of Yattendon, Berks. With a Preface by 
Canon Scott Holland. Crotm 8w. 2j. 6d, 

Seven sermons preached before the boys of Bradfield College. 

Layard. RELIGION IN BOYHOOD. Notes on the Reli- 
gious Training of Boys. With a Preface by J. R. Illingworth. 
By E. B. Layard, M.A. iSmo, is. 

TO THE REFORMATION. By Croakb James, Author of 
* Curiosities of Law and Lawyers.' Crown Szh>. Js. 6d. 

* This volume contains a great deal of quaint and curious matter, affording some 

" particulars of the interesting persons, episodes, and events from the Christian's 
pomt of view during the first fourteen centuries. Wherever we dip into his pages 
we find something worth dipping into,'— /ohn Bull, 

KaufinaJUL CHARLES KINGSLEY. By M. Kaufmann, 
M.A. Crown 8w. Buckram. 5j. 
a Diegraphy of Kingsley, especially dealing with his achievements in social reform. 
' The author has certainly gone abmit his work with conscientiousness and industry.'^ 
Sheffield Daily Telegraph. 

i8 Messrs. Methuen's List 

3)(t)otional Boofc0^ 

mtk Fmtt'Pagi mmstroHoms, 
With an Introdaction by Archdracon Farrar. Illastrated by 
C M. Gbrb, and printed in black and red. Fcap, %vo, .v. 6dL 

* A new and beautifnl edirion of a book that will abide during the ages. The paging 

and t)rpe-work are perfect, and the effect is heightened by the lai^, fine-cot metu 
letter in vermilion which marks the beginning of each verse or paragraph of the 
volnmc *'-~Fmmmu*s Joumai, 

* We must draw attention to the antique style, ouaintness, and typographical excel* 

lance of the work, its red-letter ' initials' and black letter type, and old-fashi<»ed 
iwragraphic arrangement of pages. The antique paper, uncut edges, and illustra- 
tions are in accord with the other features of this unique little ^vtk.*—NtmsagtnL 
'Am(Nigstallthe innumerable English editions of the 'Imitation,* there can have 
been few which were prettier thjui this one, printed in strong and handsome type 
by Messrs. Constable, with all the glory of red initials, and the comfort of buckram 
bmding.' — Glasgow fitrald, 

daction and Notes by W. Lock, M.A., Sub- Warden of Keble 
Conefi:e, Author of * The Life of John Keble.' Illustrated by R. 
Anning Bbll. Fcap, Stw. $s. [Easter. 

Leaders of Religion 

Edited by H. C BEECHING, M. A With Portraits, crown 8tv. 

A series of short biographies of the most pro- § ^ . ^ 

minent leaders of religions life and thought of /^ Ir^ Qj /^ \\\ 
all ages and countries. ^1 ^^ ^^ ^j ^^ 

The following are ready— 2S. 6d. 

CARDINAL NEWMAN. By R. H. Hutton. Second Edition, 

* Few who read this book will fail to be struck by the wonderful insight it displays 

into the nature of the Cardinal's genius and the spirit of his life.' — Wilpkxo 
Ward, in the TttbUt, 

* Full of knowledge, excellent in method, and intelligent in criticism. We regard it 

as wholly admirable.'— ^ca</^mrjr. 

JOHN WESLEY. By J. H. Overton, M.A. 

' It is well done : the story is clearly told, proportion is duly observed, and there is 
no lade either of discrimination or of sympathy.' — Manchtsttr Guardian, 


Messrs. Methuen's List 19 

3s. 6d. 

JOHN KEBLE. By Walter Lock, M.A. Seventh EcUiion. 

THOMAS CHALMERS. By Mrs. Oliphant. Second Edition. 

LANCELOT ANDREWES, Bishop of Winchester. By R. L. 
Ottley, M.A. 

' A very interesting and skilful monograph.' — Times. 

< Mr. Ottley has told the story of a great career with judgment and knowledge, and 
he has not forgotten to indicate either the forces which shaped it, or the force 
which it has in turn contributed to the shaping of the religious life of to-day. — 
Lgeds Mercury. 


Other volumes will be announced in due course. 

Works by S. Baring Gould 

OLD COUNTRY LIFE, With Sixty-seven Illustrations by 
W. Parkinson, F. D. Bedford » and F. Masey. Large Crown 
Svo, cloth super extra, top edge gilt, los, 6d, Fifth and Cheaper 
Edition, 6j. 

* •* Old Country Life^" as healthy wholesome reading, full of breezy life and move- 

ment, full of quaint stories vigorously told, will not be excelled by any book to be 
published throughout the year. Sound, hearty, and English to the core.' — World, 

Edition. Crown %vo. 6s, 
' A collection of exciting and entertaining chapters. The whole volume is delightful 
reading. ' — Times. 

FREAKS OF FANATICISM. Third Edition, Crown Zvo. 6s. 

* Mr. Baring Gould has a keen eye for colour and effect, and the subjects he has 

chosen give ample scope to his descriptive and analytic faculties. A perfectly 
fascinating book.' — Scottish Leader. 

with their traditional melodies. Collected and arranged by S. 
Baring Gould and H. Fleetwood Sheppard. Demy 4/0, dr. 

SONGS OF THE WEST : Traditional Ballads and Songs of 
the West of England, with their Traditional Melodies. Collected 
by S. Baring Gould, M.A., and H. Fleetwood Sheppard, 
M.A. Arranged for Voice and Piano. In 4 Parts (containing 25 
Songs each). Farts /., //., ///., 3^. eack. Fart IV., ^s. In one 
Vol., French morocco, 15^, 

* A rich and varied collecUon of bumoiir, pathos, grace, and poetic fancy. •—SeOurtU^ 


20 Messrs. Methuen's List 

A BOOK OF FAIRY TALES retold by S. Baring Gould 
With numerons iUnstnUions and initial letten by Arthur J. Gaskin. 
Cr^wH 8m. Btukram. 6r. 
' TIm atoritt an old friends— Cinderella, Bluebeard, the Three Bmis, and ce on— in 
a new dress of limple language which their skilled reviser has given them. They 
ottka a delighcfnl collection, and Mr. Gaskia's illustrations have a beanty all their 
own, a beauty which some will judge to be beyond the aporedation of children, 
bot a child is sure to be interested by these pictures, ana the imnression they 
give cannot but have the best effect in the formation of a good taste. —Scottman. 

* Mr. Baring Gould has done a good deed, and is deserving of gratitude, in re-writ- 

ing in honest, simple style the old stories that delighted the childhood of " our 
fathers and grandfatherk" We do not think he has omitted any of our lavourxte 
stories, the stories that are commonly regarded as merely " old-fashioned." As 
to the form of the book, and the printing, which is by Messrs. Consuble, it were 
difficult to commend vnamvxAu'-^tUmnuij Rgmtm, 

Fourth EdiHam. Crown 8zv. df. 

Illustrations. Bj S. Baring Gould. Crown Stro, Second Edition. 
A book on such subjects as Foundations, Gables, Holes, Gallows^ Raiang the Hat, Old 
Ballads, etc. etc. It traces in a most interesting manner their origin and histcury. 
' We have read Mr. Baring Gould's book from bennning to end. It b fall of quaint 
and various information, and there is not a duU page in it*— JV^/lit mnd Queries, 

Emperors of the Julian and Qaudian Lines. With numerous Illus- 
trations from BttsU, Gems» Cameos, etc. By S. Baring Gould, 
Author of ' Mehalah,' etc Third Edition. Royal %ioo. 15J. 
* A most splendid and fascinating book on a subject of undying interest. The ereat 
feature of the book is the use the author has made of the existing portraits of the 
Caesars, and the admirable critical subtlety he has exhibited in dealing with this 
line of research. It is brilliantly written, and the illustrations are supplied on a 
scale of profuse magnificence.' — Daily ChromcU» 
' The volumes will in no sense disappoint the general reader. Indeed, in their way, 
there b nothing in any sease so good in English. . . . Mr. Banng Gould has 
presented his narrative u such a way as not to make one dull page.'— ^M/n^wm. 

Gould. With numerous Illustrations by F. D. Bedford, S. 
Button, etc 2vo/s. DemyZvo. 321. 

This book Is the first serious attempt to describe the great barren tableland that 
extends to the south of Limousin in the Department of Aveyron, Lot, etc., a 
country of dolomite cUfi8| and canons, and subterranean rivers. The region is 
foil of prehistoric and historic interest, relics of cave-dwellers, of medisval 
lobbers, and of the English domination and the Hundred Years' War. 

' His two richly-illustrated volumes are full of matter of bterest to the geologist, 
the archaeologist, and the student of history and taaoiXietn,*— Scotsman. 

' It deals with iu subject in a manner which rarely fisils to arrest and enchain atten- 
tion.'— TYimm. 

' We leave the author with a clear and delightful knowledge of the district and with 
a fresh attraction towards him$eM[J'—Leult Mercury, 

* A wholly original and singularly attractive yecnik^* —Daily Ntmu 

Messrs. Methuen's List 21 

mr. baring gould's novels 

* To say that a book is by the author of " Mehalah " is to imply that it contains a 

story cast on strong lines, containing dnmtatic possibilities, vivid and sympathetic 
descriptions of Nature, and a wealth of ingenious imagery.' — Sptaker, 
' That whatever Mr. Baring Gould writes is well worth readanc, is a conclusion that 
may be ver}r generally accepted. His views of life are fresh and vigorous, his 
language pointed and characteristic, the incidents of which he makes use are 
striking and original, his characters are life-like, and though somewhat excep- 
tional people, are drawn and coloured with artbtic force. Add to this that his 
descriptions of scenes and scenery are painted with the loving eyes and skilled 
hands of a master of his art, that he is always fresh and never aull, and under 
such conditions it b no wonder that readers have gained confidence both in his 
power of aniusmg and satisfying them, and that year by year his popularity 
widens.' — Ctntrt Circular, 


IN THE ROAR OF THE SEA : A Tale of the Cornish Coast 


ARMINELL: A Social Romance. 
URITH : A Story of Dartmoor. 
MARGERY OF QUETHER, and other Stories. 
JACQUETTA, and other Stories. 



TRAGEDY. By Marie Corelli, Author of,' A Romance of Two 
Worlds,* 'Vendetta,' etc. Fourteenth Edition. Crown Svo. 6s. 

* The tender reverence of the treatment and the imaginative beauty of the writing 

have reconciled us to the daring of the conception, and the conviction is forced on 
us that even so exalted a subject cannot be made too familiar to us, provided it be 
presented in the true spirit of Christian faith. The amplifications of the Scripture 
narrative are often conceived with high poetic insight, and this " Dream of the 
World's Tragedy " is, despite some trifling incongruities, a lofty and not inade- 
quate paraphrase of the supreme climax of the inspired narrative.'— i7«^/m 

Anthony Hope. THE GOD IN THE CAR. By Anthony 
Hope, Author of * A Change of Air,* etc SixtJk Edition. Crown 
^vo. 6s. 

* "The God In the Car" is so good, so immeasurably better than anything 

Mr. Hope ha^ done before in the way of a novel of contemporary manners, that 


there Mems no reaion vliy he dioald not evetttuUy reach that piece i 
rank, which he has evidently let before himself as his goaL "The i 
Car * is a novel eminently worth reading, full of brilliance, fire, and d 

t God in the 
.i daring, and 
above all full of jMPoause of sooMthing sml better in the future, aomething whidi 
will reader critiasm superfiuoos.'— IfMoUflfr GmartUatt. 

* Rnstoo is drawn with extraordinary skill, and Maggie Dennison with many subtle 

strokes. The minor characters are clear cut In short the book b a brilliant one. 
*' The God in the Car " u one of the most remarkable works in a year that has 
given us the handiwork of nearly all our best living novelists.'— •S'/kuM^sn^ 

' A very remarkable book, deserving of critical analysis impossible within our limit ; 
brilliant, but not sopertdal ; well considered, but not elaborated ; constructed 
with the proverbial art that conceals, but yet allows itself to be enjoyed by 
readers to whom fine literary method is a keen pleasure ; true without cynicism, 
subtle without aflfectation, humorous without strain, witty without offence, inevit* 
ably sad, with an unmorose simplicity.'— rAtf WorUL 

Anthonj Hiq;^. A CHANGE OF AIR. By Anthony Hope, 

Author of * The Prisoner of Zenda,' etc Crown %vo, 6x. 

'A graceful, vivacious comedy, true to human nature. The characters are traced 
with a masterly hand.' — Ttmgs, 

Antiumy Hope. A MAN OF MARK. By Anthony Hope. 

Author of *The Prisoner of Zenda,' 'The God in the Car/ etc 

Second Edition, Crmon %tfo, 6s, 

This is a re-issue of Anthony Hope's first novel. It has been out of print for some 
years, and in view of the great popularity of the author, it has been reprinted. It 
is a story of political adventure in South America, and is rather in the style of 
* The Prisoner of Zenda.' 

Ctonan Doyle. ROUND THE RED LAMP. By A. Conan 
Doyle, Author of * The White Company,' * The Adventures of Sher- 
lock Holmes,' etc Tlkird Edition, Crown Svo, 6s, 

' The reader will find in it some perfectly constructed stories, the memory of which 
will haunt him lone after he has laid it down. The author again reveals himself 
as a keenly sympauetic observer of life and a master of vigorous impressive iiarra> 
tive.' — Yorkshire Post. 

' The book is, indeed, composed of leaves from life, and is far and away the best 
view that has been vouchsafed us behind the scenes of the consulting-room. It is 
very superior to " The Diary of a late Physician." *— Illustrated London Newt. 

' Dr. Doyle wields a cunning pen, as all the world now knows. His deft touch is 
seen to perfection in these short sketches — these "facts and fancies of medical 
life," as he calls them. Every page reveals the literary artist, the keen observer, 
the trained delineator of human nature, its weal and its woe.' — Freenutn'sJoumoL 

* These tales are skilful, attractive, and eminently suited to give reUef to the mind 

of a reader in quest of diMtnction.'^ A tkenaum. 

* The book is one to buy as well as to borrow, and that it will repay both buyer and 

borrower with interest.' — Sunday Times. 

' It is quite safe to assert that no one who begins to read ' Round the Red Lamp * 
will voluntarily lay the book aside until every one of its fascinating pages has 
been perused.'— Z^ufy. 

' No more interesting and occasionally sensational stories have appeared than these.' 

Messrs. Methuen's List 23 

Stanley Weyman. UNDER THE RED ROBE. By Stanley 
Weyman, Author of ' A Gentleman of France.' With Twelve Illus- 
trations by R. Caton Woodville. Sixth Edition, Crown Svo. 6s. 
A cheaper edition of a book which won instant popularitY* No anfavourable review 
occurred, and most critics spoke in terms of enthusiastic admiration. The ' West- 
minster Gazette ' called it * a book of which ive have read every word for the sheer 
pleeuure of readings a$td which we pnt dawn with a pang that toe canstot forget 
it all and start again.' The 'Daily Chronicle' said that 'every one who reads 
books at all must read this thrilling romance, from the first page of which to the 
last the breathless reader is haled along.' It also called the book ' an inspiration 
ofmasdiness and courage.' The ' Globe ' called it ' a delightful tale of chivalry 
and adventure, vivid and dramaiiCt with a wholesome modesty and reverence 
for the highest: 

E. P. Benson, DODO : A DETAIL OF THE DAY. By E. F. 
Benson. Crown Svo, Fourteenth Edition, 6s, 
A stiny of society which attracted by its brilliance universal attention. The best 
critics were cordial in their praise. The * Guardian ' spoke of * Dodo ' as ' un>- 
usually clever eutd interesting; l the 'Spectator' called it *a delightfully witty 
sketch of society \* the 'Speaker' said the dialogue was * a perpetual feast of 
epigram and paradox ' ; the ' Athenaeum ' spoke of the author as ' a writer 
of quite exceptional ability* ; the 'Academy' praised his ' amazing cleverness \* 
the 'World' said the book was * brilliantly written* \ and half-a-docen papers 
declared there was ' not a dull page in the book,* 

B. P. Benson. THE RUBICON. By E. F. Benson, Author of * 
' Dodo.' Fourth Edition, Crown Svo, 6s, 
Of Mr. Benson's second novel the 'Birmingham Post' says it is *well written, 
stimulating, unconventional, and, in a word, characteristic ' : the ' National 
Observer ' conzratulates Mr. Benson upon ' an exceptional achievement^ and 
calls the book ^a notable advance on his previous work,* 

Baring Gould. IN THE ROAR OF THE SEA : A Tale of 
the Cornish Coast. By S. Baring Gould. Fifth Edition, 6s, 

By S. Barino Gould. Third Edition, 6s, 

A story of Devon life. The * Graphic ' speaks of it as ' a navel of vinous humour and 
sustained power* ; the ' Sussex Daily News ' says that ' the swtngofthe narrative 
is splendid' ; and the ' Speaker' mentions its ' bright imaginative Power.* 

Baring Gould. CHEAP JACK ZITA. By S. Baring Gould. 

nird Edition. Crown Svo. 6s, 
A Romance of the Ely Fen Dbtrict in 1815, which the 'Westminster Gazette* calls 
' a powerful drama of human passion ' ; and the ' National Observer ' ' a story 
worthy the author,* 

Baring Gould. THE QUEEN OF LOVE. By S. Baring 
Gould. Second Edition, Crown Svo. 6s, 

The ' Glasgow Herald ' says that ' the scenery is admirable, and the dramatic inci- 
dents are most striking.* The 'Westminster Gazette' calls the book * strong, 
interesting, and clever.' ' Punch ' says that *you cannot put it dawn until you 
have finished it.' ' The Sussex Daily News ' says that it ' can be heartily recom* 
mended to eUl who care for cleanly, energetic, and interesting fiction,* 


Baring Ckmld. KITTY ALONE. By S. Bariko Gould, 
Author of 'Mehatth,' 'Cheap Ja<^ Zita,' etc. Seemid Editm, 
Crcwn 8tw. df . 
' A itrong and oripnal ttory, teeming with grspUc description, itiniiis inddeat, 
and, above all, with Tirid and enthralling hnmaa intereit.*~Z7ar7v T€ltermpk, 

* Brisk, derer, keen, heahhv, hnmoroos. and interesting.'— iVa/£MMi/ OHerver, 
' Pull of qoaint and delightrnl studies of charact«r.*— Jw-frii^/ Mtrtuty. 

of ' Mdlle. de Menac,' etc. Sec<md EdUion. Crown Sw, 6s. 

* **lfatthew Anattn ** may safely be praooonood one of the aost intellectnally satis- 

factory and morally bracing novels of the current year.'— Z>at/r Tgliigv»^ 
*The charaaers are carefully and cleverly drawn, and the story is ingenious and 

interesting.'— {hmti^mm. 

*Mr. W. E. If orris b always happy m his delueation of evcry^y experiences, but 
rarely has he been brighter or breesier than in" Matthew Austia" The pictures 
are m Mr. Norris's pleasantest vein, while running through the entire story Is a 
felicity of style and wholesomeness of tone which one b a ccnstom ed to find in the 
noveb of thb favourite aathor.'—^Scv/tMMM. 

* Mr. Norris writes as an edncated and shrewd observer, and as a gentleman.'— 


W. & Norxifl. HIS GRACE. By W. £. Norris, Author of 
' Mademoiselle deMenac.' Third Editiom, CfwitScw. 6s. 

'The characten are delineated b^ the author with hb characteristic sldll and 
vivacity, and the story b told with that ease of manners and Thackerayean in- 
sight wluch give streiwth of flavour to Mr. Norrb's noveb No one can depict 
the Englishwoman of the better classes with more subtlety.'— {^Au^vsv Htrald. 

'Mr. Norris has drawn a really fine character in the Duke of Hurstbonrne, at once 
nnconventional and very true to the conventionalities of life, weak and strong in 
a breath, capable of inane follies and lieroic dedsions, iret not so definitely por- 
trayed as ID relieve a reader of the n ece s s ity of study on hb own behalt.'— 

Oil1)ert Parker. MRS. FALCHION. By Gilbert Parker, 
Author of * Pierre and His People.' New Edition, 6s. 
Mr. Parker's second book has received a warm welcome. The * Athenaeum ' called 

minster Gazette ' applied to it the epithet of ' dUtrnguishtd,* 

Gilbert Parker. PIERRE AND HIS PEOPLE. By Gilbert 
pARKRa. Crown Bvo. Buckram. 6j. 
' Stories happily conceived and finely executed. There b strength and genios in Mr. 
Parker's style.'- Z>«^ Teltgraph, 

Gilbert Parker, Author of 'Pierre and His People,* 'Mrs. 
Falchion,' etc. Crown 8zv. 6s. 

'The plot b original and one difficult to wcvk out ; but Mr. Parker has done it with 
great skill and delicacy. The reader who b not interested in thb original, firesh, 
and well-told tale must be a dull person indeed.'— /7at^ Chronicle. 

'A strong and successful piece of workmanship. The portrait of Lali, strong, digni- 
fied, aitd pore, is exceptionally well dnLwn.—MaMCMster Guardian, 

* A very pretty and interesting story, and Mr. Parker telb it with much skiU. The 
story IS one to be read.'— >». Jame£s GoMtttt. 

Messrs. Methuen's List 25 

Gilbert Parker. THE TRAIL OF THE SWORD. By Gilbert 
Parker, Author of ' Pierre and his People,* etc. Crown Svo, 6s, 
A historical romance dealing with a stirring period in the history of Canada. 

Arthur Morrison. TALES OF MEAN STREETS. By Arthur 
Morrison. Cr<nun ^o, 6s. 

* Told with consummate art and extraordinary detail. He tells a plain, unvarnished 

tale,^ and the very truth of it makes for beauty. In the true humanity of the book 

lies its justification! the permanence of its interest, and its indubitable triumph.' — 

A tfufUBum. 
' Each story is cumplete in itself, vivid, engrossing. His work is literature, and 

literature of a high order.' — Realm. 
'A great book. The author's method is amazingly effective, and produces a thrilling 

sense of reality. The writer lays upon us a master hand. The book is simply 

aiH>aliing and irresistible in its mterest. It is humorous also ; without humour 

it would not make the mark it is certain to make.'— >F<?riW. 
' Mr. Morrison has shot the flashlight of his unmistakable genius. The literary 

workmanship is of the highest ordfir.*— Aberdeen Press. 

* Powerful pictures from the lower social depths.* — Morning^ Post, • 

Eobert Barr. IN THE MIDST OF ALARMS. By Robert 

Barr, Author of * From Whose Bourne,' etc Crown %vo. 6s. 

* A delightful romance with experiences strange and exciting. There are two pretty 

girls m the story, both the heroes fall in love, and the development of this thread 
of the tale is in all respects charming. The dialogue is always bright and witty ; 
the scenes are depicted briefly and enectivelv ; and there is no incident from first 
to last that one would wish to have omitted. -^Scotsmafi. 

Pryce. TIME AND THE WOMAN. By Richard Pryce, 
Author of * Miss Maxwell's Affections,' 'The Quiet Mrs. Fleming,' 
etc New and Cheaper Edition. Crown Svo, 6s. 

* Mr. Pryce's work recalls the style of Octave Feuillet, by its clearness, conciseness, 

its literary reserve.' — Aihenaum. 

Marriott Watson. DIOGENES OF LONDON and other 
Sketches. By H. B. Marriott Watson, Author of * The Web 
of the Spider.' Crown ^vo. Buckram. 6s, 
' By all those who delight in the uses of words, who rate the exercise of prose above 
the exercise of verse, who rejoice in all proofs of its delicacy and its strength, who 
believe that English prose is chief among the moulds of thought, by these 
Mr. Marriott Watson's book will be welcomed.' — National Observer. 

Gilchrist. THE STONE DRAGON. By Murray Gilchrist. 
Crown Svo. Buckram. 6s. 
' The author's faults sure atoned for by certain positive and admirable merits. The 
romances have not their counterpart in modem literature, and to read them is a 
unique ex^txitnce.^— National Observer. 


Edna Lyall, Author of ' Donovan,' etc. Crown ^o. 3^. 6d. 

Baring Oould. ARMINELL: A Social Romance. By S. 
Baring Gould. New Edition. Crown Svo. $s. 6d, 

26 Messrs. Methuens List 

Baring OonUL URITH : A Story of Dartmoor. By S. Baring 
Gould. Third Edition, Crvum^oo. ys, 6d. 

* TIm anlhor is at his bat.'— Titmgt, 

* He has nourly reached tha high watcfmaik of *' If ehalah." *—Naiiomd Oistroer, 

Baring Gkmld. MARGERY OF QUETHER, and other Stories. 
By S. Baring Gould. Crmn Stkf. p, 6d, 

Baring Ooold. JACQUETTA, and other Stories. ByS.BA]aNG 
Gould. Cr9WH Svo. y. 6d, 

(hay. ELSA. A NovcL By E. M'Queen Gray. Croivn 8m 

*A charmiDff novel The chancten aie not only powcrfiil tketchef, but minntely 
and carefully finished portraits.'— {^wan^Mm. 

J. H. Peaxce. JACO TRELOAR. By J. H. Pearce, Author of 

< Esther Pentreath.' New Editim, CrowHSvo, y.6d. 
A tragic stoiy of Cornish life by a writer of remarkable power, whose first novel has 

been highly praised by Mr. Gladstone. 
The 'Spectator^ speaks of Mr. Pearce as * awriUr^txeepH&tuaMwer'; the *DaUy 

Telegraph' calls the book ^^twtrful and /Uturuqme^ \ the vBirmingham Post' 

asserts that it is * « mmv/ <M(rA ftimHty: 

Clark Russbll, Author of * The Wreck of the Grosyenor,' etc. 
lUuitraUd, Third Editunu Crwm%vo. y. 6d. 

X. L. AUT DIABOLUS AUT NIHIL, and Other Stories. 
By X. L. Crown %oo. 31. 6d. 
' Distinctly orfa{inal and in the highest degree imaginatiTe. The conception is almost 

as loftv as Milton's.'— >S>|«e/a/^. 
' Original to a degree of originality that may be called primitive— a kind of passion* 

' Of powerful interest There is something startlingly original in the treatment of the 
themes. The terrible realism leaves no doabt oTthe author's power.'— ^4 thenaum. 
' The stories possess the rare merit of originality.'— >S]|Ara^r, 

O'Grady. THE COMING OF CUCULAIN. A Romance of 
the Heroic Age of Ireland. By Standish O'Grady, Author of 
' Finn and his Companions,' etc. Illustrated hy Murray Smith. 
Crown 8w. 3j. 6^ 

' A flashlight thrown on the greatness and splendour of our ancestors. Redolent of 
freshness and purity.'— C^r^^ Herald, 

' The sugg »tions of mystery, the rapid and exciting action, are superb poetic effects.' 

* For light and colour it resembles nothing so much as a Swiss Avim.^^MaMckett€r 

'A romance extremely fascinating and admirably well XaaxJ—Satnrday Rtvitw, 

By Constance Smith, Author of * The Repentance of Paul Went- 
worth/ etc. New Edition, Crown 8tv. 3^. 6d, 

Messrs. Methuen's List 27 

Anthor of 'Vera.' THE DANCE OF THE HOURS. By 
the Author of * Vera.* Crown 8w. 3x. 6d. 

Esmd Stuart. A WOMAN OF FORTY. By Esm4 Stuart, 
Author of 'Muriers Marriage/ •Virginia's Husband/ etc New 
Edition, Crown 8tv. y, 6d, 
'The story is well written, and some of the scenes show great dramatic power.'— 
Daify CAroHteU. 

Fenn. THE STAR GAZERS. By G. Manville Fenn, 
Author of * Eli's Children,' etc Mm Edition. Cr. ^o, y, 6d, 

* A stirring romance.'— ffV«/tfn* Morning^ News, 

' Told with all the dramatic power for which Mr. Fenn is conspicnoos.'— ^f»4^9r«/ 

Dickinson. A VICAR'S WIFE. By Evelyn Dickinson. 

Crown Svo, p. 6d, 

Ftowse. THE POISON OF ASPS. By R. Orton Prowse. 
Crown $vo, y, 6d, 

Crown 8zv. 5x. 

SON, Christian and Communist. By E. Lynn Linton. Eleventh 
Edition. Post $vo. is. 


A Series of Novels hy popular Attthors^ tastefully 
bound in cloth. 


1. THE PLAN OF CAMPAIGN. By F. Mabel Robinson. 

2. DISENCHANTMENT. By F. Mabel Robinson. 

3. MR, BUTLER'S WARD. By F. Mabel Robinson. 

4. HOVENDEN, V.C. By F. Mabel Robinson. 

5. ELPS CHILDREN. By G. Manville Fenn. 

6. A DOUBLE KNOT. By G. Manville Fenn. 

7. DISARMED. By M. Betham Edwards. 

8. A LOST ILLUSION. By Leslie Keith. 

9. A MARRIAGE AT SEA. By W, Clark Russell. 

10. IN TENT AND BUNGALOW. By the Author of « Indian 


11. MY STEWARDSHIP. By E. McQueen Gray. 

28 Messrs. Mbthuen's List 




Other volumes inll be annoimced in due eoarae. 

Books for Boys and Girls 

Baring Gtrald. THE ICELANDER'S SWORD. By S. 
Baring Gould, Author of *Mehalah,* etc With Twenty-nine 
Illustrations by J. MoYR SMITH. Crown Svo. 6s, 
A stirring story of Iceland, written for boys by the author of ' In the Roar of the Sea. 


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